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The following is an excerpt from a 20-F SEC Filing, filed by YANDEX N.V. on 4/2/2020.
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Item 6.  Directors, Senior Management and Employees.

The following table sets forth certain information with respect to each of our executive officers and directors and their respective age and position as of the date of this Annual Report:














Date of Expiration of Current Term of Office


Director or Executive Officer Since



Arkady Volozh








Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer

John Boynton








Non-Executive Chairman

Tigran Khudaverdyan








Deputy CEO and Executive Director

Esther Dyson








Non-Executive Director

Herman Gref








Non-Executive Director

Alexey Komissarov








Non-Executive Director

Mikhail Parakhin








Non-Executive Director

Rogier Rijnja








Non-Executive Director

Charles Ryan








Non-Executive Director

Ilya Strebulaev








Non-Executive Director

Alexander Voloshin








Non-Executive Director

Alexey Yakovitsky








Non-Executive Director

G. Gregory Abovsky








Chief Financial Officer; Chief Operating Officer

Mr. Volozh is the principal founder of Yandex and has been our Chief Executive Officer and a director since 2000. A serial entrepreneur with a background in computer science, Mr. Volozh co-founded several successful IT enterprises, including InfiNet Wireless, a Russian provider of wireless networking technology, and CompTek International, one of the largest distributors of network and telecom equipment in Russia. In 2000, Arkady left his position as CEO at CompTek International to become the CEO of Yandex. Mr. Volozh started working on search in 1989, which led to him establishing Arkadia Company in 1990, a company developing search software. His earlier achievements include the development of electronic search for use in patents, Russian classical literature and the Bible. Mr. Volozh holds a degree in applied mathematics from the Gubkin Institute of Oil and Gas.

Mr. Boynton has been a non-executive director since 2000 and was appointed to serve as Chairman of the Board in 2016. He was a founding shareholder of Yandex and has served the Board in a number of capacities including Chairman of the Nominating and Governance Committee, Chairman of the Compensation Committee, and Member of the Audit Committee. He is a member of the National Association of Corporate Directors.
In addition to Yandex, he was co-founder of CompTek and InfiNet Wireless in Russia and has served as a founder, investor and/or board member in a variety of growth companies in technology, healthcare services, and real estate.  His career was shaped by a student trip to the Soviet Union in 1983. He was studying Russian language at the time, and that trip inspired him to direct his entrepreneurial energy toward Russia after graduating from Harvard in 1988.

Mr. Khudaverdyan was appointed Deputy CEO of the Company in May 2019. Mr. Khudaverdyan joined Yandex in April 2006, and since then has led several successful Yandex projects, including Yandex.Browser and Yandex.Navigator. He moved to the Yandex.Taxi business in 2015, and has served as Chief Executive Officer of MLU B.V., our ride-hailing and food delivery joint venture with Uber, since its formation. Mr. Khudaverdyan graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in Physics. The Board believes that Mr. Khudaverdyan will bring a deep understanding of the Company’s business, operations and technology to the Board. The Board also believes that it is in the best interests of the Company and its shareholders to appoint a second executive member to the Board.

Ms. Dyson has been a non-executive director at Yandex since 2006. Ms. Dyson is executive founder of Wellville, a US-based 10-year non-profit project to demonstrate the value of investing in health. Ms. Dyson is an active investor and board member in a variety of IT, healthcare and aerospace start-ups, and also sits on the board of Pressreader, another IT company of Russian origin based in Canada. She started her career as a fact-checker for Forbes Magazine, and then spent five years as a securities analyst on Wall Street. At New Court Securities, Ms. Dyson


comprised the sell-side research department, and worked on the initial public offering of Federal Express, among others. At Oppenheimer & Co., she followed the nascent software and personal computer markets. From 1982 to 2004, as the owner of EDventure Holdings, she edited its newsletter Release 1.0 and ran its annual PC Forum conference, where Yandex CEO Arkady Volozh spoke in 2005. In addition to Yandex and Luxoft, her Russian interests have included advisory board seats with both IBS Group and SUP/Live Journal, and investments in the technology companies Epam, Ostrovok, TerraLink, UCMS and Zingaya. She sits on the boards of BAMF Health and SWVL (a Cairo-based dynamic transportation company). She was an early investor in Flickr and del.icio.us (sold to Yahoo!), Medstory and Powerset (sold to Microsoft), Brightmail (sold to Symantec), and Postini (sold to Google), Meetup (sold to WeWork), and Geometric Intelligence and Jump (sold to Uber), among others. She is the author of “Release 2.0: A design for living in the digital age” (1997). She earned a B.A. in economics from Harvard University.

Mr. Gref has served since 2007 as the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Executive Board of Sberbank of Russia, one of the largest commercial banks in Russia. From 2000 to 2007, Mr. Gref was the Minister for Economic Development of the Russian Federation. He previously served in a number of government positions at the federal and regional levels in Russia. Mr. Gref received a degree in law from Omsk State University in 1990, a Ph.D. in law from St. Petersburg State University in 1993 and has a Ph.D. in economics. Mr. Gref holds a Citation and Certificate of Honor from the President of the Russian Federation, the Order for Distinguished Service of Grade IV and the Stolypin Medal.

Mr. Komissarov is vice-rector of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. He is also a member of PJSC SIBUR Holding’s board of directors. From 2015 to 2017, he was director of the Industry Development Fund and served as independent director, member of the Strategy and Investment Committee and chairman of the Budget and Reporting Committee to GLONASS. From 2011 to 2015, he worked in the Moscow government as a minister and head of the Department of Science, Industrial Policy and Entrepreneurship, and also served as advisor to the Mayor. Mr. Komissarov has a degree from the Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University in Automotive Engineering and Maintenance, an MBA from Kingston University in the UK.

Mr. Parakhin is an industry veteran with more than 20 years of industry experience, particularly in the areas of AI and large-scale processing. He has lead teams of various sizes for some of the world’s leading tech companies. Mr. Parakhin joined Yandex as Chief Technology Officer in 2014, leading all technical teams globally for the company, applying his unique background in machine learning and coding, plus specializations in search, image processing, as well as handwriting and speech recognition algorithms. Mr. Parakhin has decided to leave his executive role at Yandex, effective August 2019. Prior to joining Yandex, Mr. Parakhin served in various roles at Microsoft, with most recent being the Head of the Bing Multimedia Search team from 2010 to 2014. Mr. Parakhin holds a Master’s degree in Physics from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. The Board believes that it will benefit from Mr. Parakhin’s technical and managerial expertise and experience, and in particular his deep familiarity with the operations of the business, and has nominated him for appointment to ensure that the Company continues to benefit from his contributions. The Board proposes that Mr. Parakhin’s appointment be for an initial term of one year; this will help to ensure that roughly the same number of directors have terms ending each year.

Mr. Rijnja has been a non-executive director of Yandex since 2013. Mr. Rijnja, is Senior Vice President of Human Resources and a member of the executive committee at D.E Master Blenders, a Dutch public company listed on the Amsterdam stock exchange. Prior to joining D.E Master Blenders in 2011, Mr. Rijnja served as head of the human resources departments at several international companies, including Maxeda (2008 to 2011), Numico N.V. (2004 to 2008) and Amazon.com (2002 to 2004). Prior to this, he was director of global management development at Reckitt Benckiser PLC from 1998 to 2002, and a human resources manager for Nike Europe from 1996 to 1998. Between 1989 and 1996, Mr. Rijnja held several positions at Apple in The Netherlands and the United States. Mr. Rijnja has a degree in law studies from Leiden University in The Netherlands.

Mr. Ryan became a non-executive director of Yandex at the time of its initial public offering in 2011. A finance professional with 29 years of experience in both the Russian and international markets, Mr. Ryan co-founded United Financial Group (UFG) and became its Chairman and CEO in 1994. In 1998, Mr. Ryan initiated the New Technology Group within UFG Asset Management, which sponsored an early-stage technology investment in ru-Net Holdings whose investments include Yandex. In 2006, Deutsche Bank acquired 100% of UFG's investment banking business, and Mr. Ryan was appointed chief country officer and CEO of Deutsche Bank Group in Russia and remained in that position until the end of 2008, when he became chairman of UFG Asset Management. From 2008 through the end of 2010, Mr. Ryan was a consultant for Deutsche Bank. Prior to founding UFG, Mr. Ryan worked as an associate and principal


banker with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in London from 1991 to 1994 and as a financial analyst with CS First Boston from 1989 to 1991. Mr. Ryan is also a founder and the general partner of Almaz Capital Partners, an international VC firm, headquartered in Silicon Valley, which connects entrepreneurs and engineering talent in the USA and Eastern European /CIS countries and brings prominent startups to the global market. Mr. Ryan has a degree in Government from Harvard University.

Mr. Strebulaev has been a non-executive director of Yandex since 2018. Mr. Strebulaev has been on the faculty at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University since 2004 and currently is the David S. Lobel Professor of Private Equity and a tenured Professor of Finance. He has also been a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research since 2010. He graduated from the London Business School with a doctorate in Finance. He also holds degrees from Lomonosov Moscow State University (B.Sc. Economics) and the New Economic School, Moscow (M.A. Economics). In addition to his qualifications in Finance, Mr. Strebulaev brings to the Board his expertise in the global technology industry, as well as his experience in corporate innovation and leadership.

Mr. Voloshin has been a non-executive director of Yandex since August 2010 after serving as an advisor to the company for two years. Since February 2012, Alexander Voloshin has served as Chairman of the Board and Independent Director at JSC Freight One. As the leader of the Moscow International Financial Centre working group, Mr. Voloshin championed an overhaul to Russia’s corporate governance rules, helping to update guidance in line with global best practice. He also served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of Uralkali from 2010 to 2014. Prior to joining our Board of Directors, Mr. Voloshin served as Chairman of the Board of MMC Norilsk Nickel from 2008 to 2010 and as Chairman of the Board of Directors of RAO "UES of Russia" from 1999 to 2008. From 1999 to 2003 Mr. Voloshin headed the Russian Presidential Administration. Prior to becoming Chief of Staff of the Russian President he worked as Deputy Chief of Staff from 1998 to 1999, and as Assistant to Chief of Staff from 1997 to 1998. Mr. Voloshin has been Chairman of the Board at Moscow Business School Skolkovo since 2016. He graduated from the Moscow Institute of Transport Engineers in 1978 and holds a degree in economics from the All-Russia Foreign Trade Academy.

Mr. Yakovitsky is the CEO of VTB Capital, VTB Group’s investment banking business. He is also a member of VTB Capital’s board of directors. In addition, he is the chairman of the Supervisory Board of VTB Bank (Europe) SE, headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany. Mr. Yakovitsky is also a member of the board of directors of VTB Capital Plc, VTB Capital’s London subsidiary and a member of the board of directors of Rostelecom. Mr. Yakovitsky started his career in equity research at United Financial Group (“UFG”). He was ranked the #1 telecom analyst for Russia by Institutional Investor in 2004 and was cohead of Russian equity research at UFG and Deutsche Bank (which acquired UFG) in 2005-2008. He then joined VTB Capital in 2008 as co-head of equities and head of research, and became its Moscow CEO in 2009. Mr. Yakovitsky has degrees from Moscow Lomonosov State University, Department of History, as well as from the Nelson A. Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy (Albany, US).

Mr. Abovsky was appointed Chief Operating Officer of Yandex in 2017 in addition to his role of Chief Financial Officer, that he has been performing since 2014. Mr. Abovsky joined Yandex as Vice President of Investor Relations in January 2013, taking on the additional role of Vice President of Corporate Development in October 2013. Mr. Abovsky began his career in the investment banking division of Morgan Stanley, and has over 18 years of experience in a variety of finance and investment management roles in the media and technology sectors. Mr. Abovsky holds a B.A. in Business Economics and Russian Literature from Brown University and an M.B.A. with High Distinction from Harvard Business School.

To our knowledge, there are no family relationships among any of the members of our board or senior management.

Compensation and Share Ownership of Executive Officers and Directors.

The aggregate cash compensation paid or accrued in 2019 for members of our senior management (a total of 12 persons), as a group, was RUB 673 million ($8.5 million).

In May 2011, we granted each of our non‑executive directors an option to acquire 28,000 Class A shares at the initial public offering price of $25.00 per share, effective on the closing of our initial public offering. Such options vested over a four‑year period. In May 2013, we granted to a new non‑executive director an option to acquire 28,000 Class A shares at a price of $27.74 per share. In May 2014, we granted a new non‑executive director an option to acquire 28,000 Class A shares at a price of $33.09 per share.


In May 2015, our Compensation Committee and Board approved grants of further equity awards to the members of our Board. Each member was granted 14,000 restricted shares units (below – “RSUs”). In addition, the chairman was granted an additional 14,000 RSUs; each member of the audit committee and compensation committee (other than the committee chairmen) was granted an additional 2,000 RSUs; and each chairmen of such committees was granted an additional 5,000 RSUs. Such awards vest over four years, with 25% vesting in May 2016 and the remainder vesting quarterly over the following three years.

In May 2016, we made an offer to our non‑executive directors to exchange up to an aggregate of 196,000 of their outstanding options for RSUs based on an exchange ratio of 2:1. As a result of exchange, a total of seven non‑executive directors exchanged an aggregate of 196,000 options for an aggregate of 98,000 RSUs. The replacement RSUs are subject to an additional 12 months vesting period beyond the original vesting schedule of the exchanged options. In addition, no exercise of the replacement RSUs are permitted for a 12 month period starting from the date of the exchange which occurred in May 2016.

In November 2016, our Compensation Committee and Board approved grants of additional 14,000 RSUs to the new chairman of the Board of Directors. The award vests over four years, with 25% vesting in June 2017 and the remainder vesting quarterly over the following three years.

In November 2016, our Compensation Committee and Board approved grants of 600,000 RSUs to our executive director. The award vests over four years, with 25% vesting in December 2018 and the remainder vesting quarterly over the following three years.

In May 2017, our Compensation Committee and Board approved grants of 125,000 RSUs to our non-executive directors. The award vests over four years, with 25% vesting in April 2018 and the remainder vesting quarterly over the following three years.

In October 2018, our Compensation Committee and Board approved grants of 15,000 RSUs to a non-executive director. The awards vest over three years, with 25% vesting in July 2018 and the remainder vesting quarterly over the following two years.

In February 2019, our Compensation Committee and Board approved grants of 7,500 RSUs to a non-executive director, including 1,250 RSUs immediately exercisable in March 2019 and 6,250 RSUs vesting quarterly over the following two and a half years.

In May 2019, our Compensation Committee and Board approved grants of 145,000 RSUs to our non-executive directors, including 75,000 RSUs vesting quarterly over three years, 65,000 RSUs vesting quarterly over two years and 5,000 RSUs vesting quarterly over a year.

For information on share ownership and options held by our directors and senior management, please see “Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions”.

Corporate Governance

The principal standing committees of our board of directors are an audit committee, a compensation committee, a nominating committee, a corporate governance committee, an investment committee and a public interest committee. We have adopted a charter for each of these committees.

Audit Committee

Our audit committee consists of three members, Messrs. Ryan (chairperson), Boynton and Strebulaev. Each member satisfies the “independence” requirements of the NASDAQ listing standards, and Mr. Ryan qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert,” as defined in Item 16A of Form 20‑F and as determined by our board of directors. The audit committee oversees our accounting and financial reporting processes and the audits of our consolidated financial


statements. The audit committee is responsible for, among other things:







making recommendations to our board of directors regarding the appointment by the shareholders of our independent auditors;



coordinating our board’s oversight of the internal control over financial reporting, disclosure controls and procedures and code of conduct;



overseeing the work of the independent auditors, including resolving disagreements between management and the independent auditors relating to financial reporting;



pre‑approving all audit and non‑audit services permitted to be performed by the independent auditors;



reviewing the independence and quality control procedures of the independent auditors;



discussing material off‑balance sheet transactions, arrangements and obligations with management and the independent auditors;



reviewing and approving all proposed related‑party transactions;



discussing the annual audited consolidated and statutory financial statements with management;



annually reviewing and reassessing the adequacy of our audit committee charter;



meeting separately with the independent auditors to discuss critical accounting policies, observations on internal controls, the auditor’s engagement letter and independence letter and other material written communications between the independent auditors and the management;



establishing procedures for an annual internal audit;



reviewing the findings of annual internal audits prepared by the internal auditors; and



attending to such other matters as are specifically delegated to our audit committee by our board of directors from time to time.

 Compensation Committee

Our compensation committee consists of three members, Messrs. Rijnja (chairperson), Boynton and Ms. Dyson. Each member satisfies the “independence” requirements of the NASDAQ listing standards. The compensation committee assists the board of directors in reviewing and approving or recommending our compensation structure, including all forms of compensation relating to our directors and management. Members of our management may not be present at any committee meeting while the compensation of our chief executive officer is deliberated. Subject to the terms of the remuneration policy approved by our general meeting of shareholders from time to time, as required by Dutch law, the compensation committee is responsible for, among other things:







reviewing and making recommendations to our board of directors with respect to compensation of our executive and non‑executive directors;



reviewing and approving the compensation, including equity compensation, change‑of‑control benefits and severance arrangements, of our chief financial officer and such other members of our management as it deems appropriate;




overseeing the evaluation of our management;



reviewing periodically and making recommendations to our board of directors with respect to any incentive compensation and equity plans, programs or similar arrangements;



exercising the rights of our board of directors under any equity plans, except for the right to amend any such plans unless otherwise expressly authorized to do so; and



attending to such other matters as are specifically delegated to our compensation committee by our board of directors from time to time.

Corporate Governance Committee

Our corporate governance committee consists of three members, none of whom may be a designated director. The current members are Messrs. Boynton (chairperson), Rijnja and Voloshin, each of whom satisfies the “independence” requirements of the NASDAQ listing standards. The corporate governance committee is responsible for, among other things:







considering, preparing and recommending to the board of directors a set of corporate governance guidelines applicable to the company;



recommending to our board of directors persons to be appointed to each committee of the board of directors, other than the nominating committee and the public interest committee; and



overseeing the board of directors’ annual review of its own performance and the performance of its committees.

Nominating Committee

Our nominating committee consists of five members and is divided into two subcommittees. The nominating committee is responsible for, among other things, selecting and recommending to the board of directors persons to be nominated for election or re‑election as directors at any general meeting of the shareholders.

Subcommittee I consists of one designated director, one director with a Russian passport and residency, and one other director. Subcommittee I is responsible for the recommendation to our board of directors for nomination of four directors (the “Class I Directors”), who will then be subject to the approval of our board of directors as a whole. The designated director will have the right to veto any candidates for such slots, provided that the exercise of such veto has first been approved by the Public Interest Foundation. The initial Class I Directors are Herman Gref, Mikhail Parakhin, Charles Ryan and Ilya Strebulaev.

Subcommittee II consists of three directors who are not Class I Directors and will, by simple majority, recommend to our board of directors for nomination six directors (the “Class II Directors”); the designated directors will have no right of veto over candidates for these seats. Our board of directors must adopt the recommendations of candidates recommended by Subcommittee II, unless our board of directors votes by a supermajority of ten directors (subject to adjustment for board vacancies) to reject such recommendation.

Investment Committee

Our investment committee consists of Messrs. Ryan (chairperson), Boynton, Volozh and Ms. Dyson. The investment committee advises the board of directors and the company’s management regarding potential corporate transactions, including strategic investments, mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. The investment committee is responsible for, among other things:









reviewing and providing guidance to management and the board of directors with respect to the  acquisition, investment and divesture strategies;



assisting management and the board of directors with the identification of opportunities of potential corporate transactions;



reviewing, and providing guidance to management and the board of directors with respect to potential corporate transactions, including the structure, timing or other terms or conditions of such transactions;



overseeing the due diligence process with respect to potential corporate transaction; and



monitoring and reporting to the board of directors regarding the implementation of any potential corporate transaction and the integration of any completed transaction.

Public Interest Committee

Our public interest committee consists of three members comprised of the then-current Chief Executive Officer and both of the designated directors. The current members of our public interest committee are Messrs.Volozh (chairperson), Yakovitsky and Komissarov. The public interest committee has no decision-making power on ordinary course matters and is responsible for decisions on the following key sensitive matters deemed to be of public interest:








transactions or other transfers resulting in the granting of direct access to Russian users’ personal data owned by us and non-depersonalized big data owned by us to non-Russian persons;



the adoption, modification, amendment, and cancellation of the Yandex internal policies on protection of personal data and non-depersonalized big data of Russian users (including storage procedures, and sale/provision of such information to foreign persons);



entry by the Company into any agreement which concerns Russia with a non-Russian state or an international intergovernmental organization (or its bodies and agencies); and



direct or indirect transfers or encumbrances of material intellectual property rights, including licensing such rights, if as a result of such license the Company would lose the ability to use such rights in Russia.

Our board of directors cannot act in respect of any of these specified matters prior to receiving a recommendation from the public interest committee. If the public interest committee does not approve the matter referred to it, our board of directors will follow the decision of the public interest committee, unless the board rejects such decision by either (i) a supermajority of eight votes (subject to adjustment for board vacancies), which must include the affirmative votes of the two designated directors; or (ii) a supermajority of eight votes (subject to adjustment for board vacancies) (not including the affirmative votes of the two designated directors), provided that the public interest foundation board has given its approval.

Employment Agreements

Substantially all of our employees are employed by our operating subsidiaries. Our employment agreements generally contain the minimum statutory notice periods required under Russian or other local law. The employment agreements between our subsidiaries and certain senior managers and other employees contain non‑competition and non‑solicitation provisions, although we understand that such provisions are generally unenforceable under Russian law.



The following table indicates the composition of our workforce as of December 31 each year indicated:


























































Product development








Sales, general and administration








Cost of sales
















The number of employees as of December 31, 2017 included employees of the Yandex.Market before its deconsolidation in April 2018, as described in Note 4 to our consolidated financial statements. This was partly compensated by a headcount reclassification from sales, general and administrative, which we implemented to ensure consistency in internal reporting for positions that we treat as outsourced labor.

We also typically employ several hundred contract workers on a part‑time basis which are not reflected in the table above, and the numbers of such contract workers generally vary in line with the numbers of full‑time staff.

Our employees are not represented by any collective bargaining agreements and we have never experienced a work stoppage. We believe our employee relations are good.

Employee Plans

We grant equity awards in the form of share options, share appreciation rights, restricted shares and restricted share units (or so called “deferred shares”) under our Fourth Amended and Restated 2007 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2007 Plan”) and our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan” and together with the 2007 Plan, the “Plans”) (“Company Awards”).  Our 2016 Plan was approved at our 2016 annual general meeting of shareholders on May 27, 2016 and replaced our 2007 Plan.  However, there remain unexercised grants under our 2007 Plan. The total number of shares available for issuance under the Plans is equal to 20% of the aggregate number of Class A and Class B shares outstanding from time to time.

Additionally, the 2016 Plan provides employees at certain of our business units, including Taxi, Classifieds and Market (the “Participating Subsidiaries”), the opportunity to receive equity awards in respect of such Participating Subsidiary (the “Business Unit Equity Awards”). Business Unit Equity Awards and any awards granted to management of the Participating Subsidiaries outside of the 2016 Plan are to not exceed 20% of such Participating Subsidiary’s shares issued and outstanding from time to time. In the future, additional of our business units may become Participating Subsidiaries.

Plan administration.  Our board of directors or its compensation committee administers our Plans. Although our Plans sets forth certain terms and conditions of our equity awards, our board of directors or its compensation committee determines the provisions and terms and conditions of each grant. These include, among other things, the vesting schedule, repurchase provisions, forfeiture provisions, and form of payment upon exercise.

Eligibility.  We may grant Company Awards to employees and directors of and consultants to our company and its subsidiaries. With respect to Business Unit Equity Awards, we may grant awards in the equity of a Participating Subsidiary to employees, officers, members of the board of directors, advisors and consultants of such Participating Subsidiary.

Exercise price and term of equity awards.  With respect to the Company Awards, the exercise price of options or measurement price of share appreciation rights awards is the average closing price per Class A share on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on the 20 trading days immediately following the grant date. With respect to Business Unit Equity Awards, the exercise price of options or measurement price of share appreciation rights shall be determined from time to


time by the Board (following consultation with an independent valuation expert). Restricted share unit awards have no exercise or measurement price. Equity awards are generally exercisable up until the tenth anniversary of the grant date so long as the grantee’s relationship with us has not terminated.

Vesting schedule.  The notice of grant specifies the vesting schedule. Awards generally vest over a four‑year period, with four-sixteenths vesting on the first anniversary of grant and an additional one-sixteenth vesting each quarter thereafter. When a grantee’s employment or service is terminated, the grantee may generally exercise his or her options that have vested as of the termination date within ninety days of termination or as determined by our plan administrator.

Class A and Class B Shares.  Outstanding options granted prior to October 2008 may be exercised, pursuant to their terms and the terms of the 2007 Plan, as follows:



In the event that an optionee intends to exercise an option and immediately sell the shares acquired, we will issue Class A shares upon such exercise.




In the event that an optionee intends to exercise an option and hold the shares acquired for some period of time, we will issue Class B shares upon such exercise. Such Class B shares will be subject to the transfer and conversion provisions applicable to all Class B shares.

Equity awards granted since October 2008 are in respect of Class A shares only, in accordance with their terms and the terms of the Plans.

Amendment and Termination.  Our board of directors may at any time amend, suspend or terminate our 2016 Plan. Prior to any such amendment, suspension or termination, our board of directors must first make a determination that share options already granted will not be adversely affected. Unless terminated earlier, our 2016 Plan will continue in effect until May 2026.

Equity Award Exchanges.   

In February 2018, we made an offer to our senior employees of one of our Business units to exchange up to an aggregate of 425,230 of their outstanding Business Unit Equity Awards for an aggregate of 2,029,987 RSUs. The replacement RSUs are fully vested.

Item 7.  Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions.

The following table contains information concerning each of our directors and members of our senior management and each shareholder known by us to beneficially own more than five percent of each class of our outstanding ordinary shares. Beneficial ownership is determined in accordance with the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission and includes voting or investment power with respect to our shares.

The number of shares outstanding used in calculating the percentage for each listed shareholder includes restricted share units in respect of Class A shares and the shares underlying options held by such shareholder that are to be exercisable within 60 days of February 20, 2020. The percentage of beneficial ownership is based on 293,684,378 Class A shares and 37,137,658 Class B shares outstanding as of February 20, 2020. All holders of our ordinary shares,

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