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The following is an excerpt from a 10-K SEC Filing, filed by NATUS MEDICAL INC on 3/16/2006.
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NATUS MEDICAL INC - 10-K - 20060316 - PART_I



ITEM 1. Business


This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 about Natus Medical Incorporated (“Natus,” “we,” “us,” or “our Company”). These statements include, among other things, statements concerning our expectations, beliefs, plans, intentions, future operations, financial condition and prospects, and business strategies. The words “may,” “will,” “continue,” “estimate,” “project,” “intend,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” and other similar expressions generally identify forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements in this Item 1 include, but are not limited to, statements regarding the following: the effectiveness and advantages of our products, factors relating to demand for and economic advantages of our products, our plan to develop and acquire additional technologies, products or businesses, our expectations regarding growth in international sales, our marketing, technology enhancement, and product development strategies, our intention to enter into agreements with group purchasing organizations, our intention to introduce new products and extend existing product lines, our intention to seek strategic partners, our belief that we bring products to market efficiently, development of technologies into successful products, our estimate of the length of time for patents to issue, identity of our competition and factors for competition, our compliance with regulatory requirements and laws, and our plan to seek approval to sell our products in additional countries.


Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties that could cause the actual results predicted in the forward-looking statements as well as our future financial condition and results of operations to differ materially from our historical results or currently anticipated results. Investors should carefully review the information contained under the caption “Risk Factors” contained in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” for a description of risks and uncertainties. All forward-looking statements are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and we assume no obligation to update forward-looking statements.


Natus ® , AABR ® , AOAE ® , ALGO ® , Cochlea-Scan ® , Echo-Screen ® , Ear Couplers ® , Flexicoupler ® , MiniMuffs ® and neoBLUE ® are registered trademarks of Natus Medical Incorporated. EchoLink TM , Neometrics TM , and Accuscreen TM are non-registered trademarks of Natus. Solutions for Newborn Care SM is a non-registered service mark of Natus. Bio-logic ® , AuDX ® , ABaer ® , Ceegraph ® , MASTER ® , Navigator ® , Sleepscan ® , and Traveler ® are registered trademarks of Bio-logic Systems Corp. CHAMP™ and Smartpack™ are non-registered trademarks of Bio-logic.




Natus is a leading provider of healthcare products used for screening, detection, treatment, monitoring and tracking of common medical ailments such as hearing impairment, neurological dysfunction, epilepsy, sleep disorders, newborn jaundice and newborn metabolic testing. We design our products to deliver accurate results in a rapid and reliable manner. In addition, our products address guidelines for standard medical practices as adopted by various medical-industry associations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics (“AAP”) and the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (“JCIH”).


We have received clearance from the Food and Drug Administration to market the following product lines. Our ALGO Newborn Hearing Screener (“ALGO screener”) is a product line for hearing screening in newborns. Our Echo-Screen OAE screener is a product line that can be used either for hearing screening in newborns or to monitor the hearing in young children and adults. These two product lines consist of medical devices and single-use disposable supplies. Our line of neoBLUE LED Phototherapy devices (“neoBLUE phototherapy devices”) are medical devices and our Biliband Eye Protectors are single-patient disposable supplies for the treatment of newborn jaundice. Our lines of neonatal oxygen delivery hoods and heat shields are designed to provide a stable environment of oxygen and humidity for newborns with special needs. Our MiniMuffs neonatal



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noise attenuators are disposable earmuffs designed to decrease noise exposure for babies in neonatal intensive care units or other noisy environments.


Our ALGO screening products use our clinically validated Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (“AABR”) technology to enable simple, noninvasive and accurate screening for hearing impairment in newborns. The ALGO screener delivers sound stimuli to a newborn’s ears and analyzes the resulting brain wave responses to automatically produce a “Pass” or “Refer” result. The procedure can be performed within hours after birth. In addition, ALGO screening products meet AAP and JCIH guidelines without requiring a trained clinician to conduct the screening or interpret the results.


Our Echo-Screen screening products use Automated Otoacoustic Emissions (“AOAE”) technology, which can be used both to test the hearing in newborns and to perform hearing monitoring in young children and adults. The Echo-Screen products deliver sound stimuli into the ear and then measure the response of the outer hair cells of the cochlea using a highly sensitive external microphone. The Echo-Screen device analyzes the response of the hair cells and utilizes binomial statistics to deliver a “Pass” or “Refer” result. Like our ALGO products, the Echo-Screen device does not require a trained clinician to conduct the screening or interpret the results.


Our neoBLUE phototherapy devices are designed for use in the treatment of newborn jaundice. Phototherapy is the standard of care treatment for newborn jaundice and consists of exposing the skin of a patient to a light source to accelerate the elimination of bilirubin from the body. Our neoBLUE phototherapy devices are based on Light Emitting Diode, or LED, technology and generate a narrow spectrum of blue light that is most effective in converting bilirubin to a form that is easily excreted by the body. Compared to other available light sources, we believe our neoBLUE phototherapy devices have the advantages of emitting less ultraviolet and infrared light, sustaining longer bulb life, and generating less heat. In October 2005 we received Federal Drug Administration (“FDA”) 510(k) clearance to market our newest phototherapy device, the neoBLUE Cozy, which provides a light source from below the patient. We expect to begin selling the neoBLUE Cozy during the first quarter of 2006. Our Biliband Eye Protector is a
single-patient use product that is used when a newborn is undergoing phototherapy.


Our Neometrics suite of newborn screening data management products consists of proprietary software that collects, tracks, manages and reports newborn screening data to regional government health labs and national disease control centers. While all states have laws and/or regulations requiring newborn screening for metabolic disorders, the laws and regulations vary widely in the extent of screening required. Recently some states have begun using tandem mass spectrometry in their newborn metabolic screening programs, which has greatly increased the number of treatable disorders that can be detected.


Our Oxydome, Oxypod, Oxy-Igloo, and Foldadome are neonatal oxygen delivery hoods, and our Igloo is a neonatal heatshield. These products are designed to provide a stable environment of oxygen and humidity for newborns with special needs in neonatal units and nurseries. These products, and our Biliband Eye Protector, are licensed from Australia-based Nascor Pty Ltd.


We were incorporated in California in May 1987 and reincorporated in Delaware in August 2000. Our principal executive offices are located at 1501 Industrial Road, San Carlos, California 94070 and our telephone number at that location is (650) 802-0400. Our website is www.natus.com . The contents of our website are not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We make our Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with the Securities and Exchange Commission.


On January 5, 2006, we acquired Bio-logic Systems Corp. (“Bio-logic”) pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated as of October 16, 2005. Pursuant to the terms of the merger agreement, each outstanding share of Bio-logic common stock was converted into the right to receive $8.77 in cash. Each outstanding option to



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acquire Bio-logic common stock was cancelled, with the holder of the option receiving, for each share covered by the option, an amount equal to the excess (if any) of $8.77 over the exercise price per share of the option. The total aggregate payment by the Company to the former stockholders and option holders of Bio-logic was approximately $68.8 million, exclusive of direct costs associated with the acquisition. In their Form 10-K for the year ended February 28, 2005 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Bio-logic reported revenue of $30.5 million and net income of $1.9 million.


The discussion that follows provides an overview of the business of Natus prior to the acquisition of Bio-logic. The discussion has been supplemented with information regarding the impact of the acquisition of Bio-logic on the business of Natus. Unless noted, the information and other disclosures presented herein refer to Natus prior to the acquisition and thus exclude related information pertaining to Bio-logic.


Our Products


Our proprietary products are designed, manufactured and packaged into product families that offer what we believe is superior quality and clinical performance at a competitive value for our customers. We currently sell our products into over 80 countries, through several distribution channels including: our direct sales force and distributor network in the United States (“U.S.”), our distributor network outside of the United States; and via several private label partnership agreements with such companies as Fisher & Paykel Healthcare, GN Otometrics, and Welch Allyn.


Hearing Screening




Hearing impairment is the most common treatable chronic disorder in newborns, affecting as many as five babies out of every 1,000 newborns. It is estimated that 20,000 hearing-impaired babies are born in the U.S. every year, and as many as 60,000 more in the rest of the developed world. Until the introduction of universal newborn hearing screening programs, screening was generally performed only on those newborns who had risk factors for hearing impairment, including a family history of hearing impairment, infection prior to birth, low birth weight, skull or facial anomalies, or bacterial meningitis. However, screening only those newborns with risk factors for hearing impairment overlooks approximately half of newborns with some level of hearing impairment.


Early identification of hearing impairment and early intervention has been shown to improve language development significantly. Babies identified as hearing impaired at birth will typically begin therapy immediately and can learn and progress at a rate comparable to children with normal hearing, regardless of the severity of hearing loss. However, undetected hearing impairment often results in the failure to learn, process spoken language, and speak. If hearing impairment is not detected prior to discharge from the hospital it is often not detected until the child is 18 months of age or older. A 1997 study conducted at the University of Colorado, Boulder evaluated the impact of hearing impairment on language and speech. All of the children evaluated in the study were born with a hearing impairment but differed by the age at which the hearing impairment was detected. The study concluded that those children whose hearing loss was detected and who received treatment early had significantly better language skills and vocabularies than those children whose hearing loss was detected later.


Newborn Hearing Screening in the United States


Newborn hearing screening has been performed in the U.S. since 1964. However, until 1993 when the National Institutes of Health and, in 1994, the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing endorsed universal newborn hearing screening, screening had generally been limited to babies with risk factors for hearing impairment. In recent years, clinical evidence in support of early detection for hearing impairment, combined with the introduction of new screening technology, has increased support for universal newborn hearing screening programs. The combined clinical benefit and cost savings encouraged additional highly populated states to adopt



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mandates for universal newborn hearing screening as early as 1997. We estimate that today approximately 90 to 95% of the children born in the U.S. are being tested for hearing impairment prior to discharge from the hospital. In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Newborn and Infant Hearing published guidelines for universal newborn hearing screening programs. These guidelines are intended to establish the standard of care and provide that:


    At least 95% of all newborns should be screened;


    The screening method used must have the ability to detect all infants with a hearing impairment of at least 35 decibels, normal hearing level (dB nHL), a common audiological unit to measure hearing, in the better ear;


    The screening method should not refer more than 4% of all children tested for further evaluation;


    No more than 3% of children with normal hearing who are screened should receive results that indicate they have a hearing impairment, a screening error known as a false positive or false refer result; and


    No child whose hearing is impaired should receive a normal result, a screening error known as a false negative or false pass result.


Because positive results are referred to an audiologist or physician for additional testing and evaluation, limiting the number of “refers” stemming from false positive results reduces the cost of a newborn screening program. In addition, false positive results can cause unnecessary emotional trauma for parents.


In order to meet the guidelines set forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics, a screening method must focus on two parameters: sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity is the capacity to detect the disease or disorder in those infants with the disease or disorder. A sensitivity of 100% indicates that no newborn with a hearing impairment receive results indicating the absence of a hearing impairment. Specificity is the capacity to detect those infants without the disease or disorder. A specificity of 100% indicates that no normal-hearing newborn receive results indicating the presence of a hearing impairment.


Newborn Hearing Screening Techniques


Traditional methods of screening for hearing impairment include subjective behavioral tests and more expensive objective diagnostic processes. We believe widespread acceptance of screening newborns for hearing impairment requires a relatively inexpensive screening method that produces sensitive, specific, and reliable results. The two traditional technologies used to screen newborns and infants for hearing impairment are auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emissions.


In addition, guidelines published in 2000 by the Joint Commission on Infant Hearing (“JCIH”) address the need for surveillance hearing screening of infants and children. The JCIH recommends that ongoing audiologic and medical monitoring and surveillance should be administered to those infants at risk for delayed or late-onset hearing loss.


Auditory brainstem response (“ABR”) .    Auditory brainstem response technology is the most accurate and comprehensive method for diagnosing hearing impairment in adults and infants. Auditory brainstem response technology uses sensors placed on the head to measure the response of the brain and auditory nerves to sounds delivered through earphones. Hearing impairment is evaluated by monitoring the brain’s response to varying frequency and volume of sounds. Trained clinicians must operate the auditory brainstem response screening equipment, and the screening results must be interpreted by an audiologist or trained physician. Non-automated auditory brainstem response technology is primarily used to assess the degree of hearing impairment in adults and children and is not widely used for newborn screening due to the high cost, lengthy procedure time, and unavailability of trained specialists in many neonatal nurseries. Enhanced auditory brainstem response devices automate portions of the screening process, such as providing pre-determined parameter menus, to make these devices easier to use or the results easier to interpret. The user has discretion to set some or all of the screening



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parameters and, as a result, many enhanced auditory brainstem response devices require substantial user training. A physician, audiologist, or other trained specialist may also be required to review a pass or refer result because these products permit discretion in setting screening parameters.


Otoacoustic emissions (“OAE”) .    Otoacoustic emissions screening is a method of detecting hearing impairment in adults and children, by measuring the function of the cochlea. Otoacoustic emissions are sounds created by the active biomechanical processes within the sensory cells of normal ears. Since otoacoustic emissions are present in normal ears, an absence of otoacoustic emissions is a sign of irregular function of these sensory cells, which could be an indicator for hearing impairment. Otoacoustic emissions screening uses a probe placed in the ear to deliver auditory stimuli and measures the response of the sensory cells with a sensitive microphone. However, otoacoustic emissions screening does not evaluate the function of the entire hearing pathway because it does not assess the neural pathways. Therefore, otoacoustic emissions technology can fail to detect hearing disorders affecting the neural pathways, such as auditory neuropathy. Different studies have found that as many as 15% of hearing impaired children have “normal” inner and middle ear function, and are hearing impaired because of disorders of the neural pathways. There are several different types of OAE technologies, however, the two most commonly used for hearing screening are transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (“TEOAE”), and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (“DPOAE”).


Natus ALGO Newborn Hearing Screening Product Line


In order to address the limitations of traditional ABR screening techniques, our ALGO screening product family utilizes proprietary Natus AABR Technology to provide accurate, non-invasive and automated hearing screening for newborns. The ALGO screener, like traditional ABR devices, utilizes a number of sensors placed on the newborn’s head to measure the response of the brain and auditory nerves to sounds delivered through specially designed earphones. However, unlike traditional ABR devices, our ALGO screener does not require a trained clinician to conduct the screening or an audiologist or physician to interpret the results. The ALGO screener uses our proprietary signal detection algorithms to perform the screening and draw a conclusion as to whether a baby needs to be referred to an audiologist for further clinical evaluation.


ALGO Newborn Hearing Screening Products


Our ALGO hearing screening product family utilizes proprietary signal detection technology to provide accurate and
non-invasive hearing screening for newborns. Our ALGO screening product family utilizes automated auditory brainstem response technology to provide accurate and non-invasive hearing screening for newborns. The ALGO screener delivers thousands of soft clicking sounds to the newborn’s ears through sound cables and disposable earphones connected to the instrument. Each click elicits a series of identifiable brain waves, which are detected by disposable sensors placed on the baby’s forehead, shoulder, and nape of the neck. This methodology will detect hearing loss at 35 dB nHL or higher. The ALGO screener automatically extracts the infant’s brainwave responses resulting from the clicks and differentiates them from other brain activity resulting from muscle activity, ambient sounds, or other stimuli affecting the brain. These brainwave responses are then compared to a template based on the brainwave responses of infants with normal hearing. The ALGO screener issues a “Pass” result when it collects sufficient data to establish that the baby’s responses are consistent with the responses of a normal hearing child to a 99.96% level of statistical confidence. If a determination cannot be reached after 15,000 sweeps, the ALGO screener issues a “Refer” result, indicating that the infant should be referred for more detailed clinical evaluation, including repeating the hearing screening by an audiologist or other specialist. Once the result of the second hearing screening is available, if the result is still a “Refer”, the specialist will conduct additional tests to determine the type and severity of the hearing impairment. We believe that our ALGO newborn hearing screening products, which use automated auditory brainstem response technology, provide the following benefits:


Accuracy and objectivity .    Our AABR technology has the highest documented specificity and sensitivity for newborn hearing screening devices not requiring a trained audiologist. The documented sensitivity of the



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ALGO system exceeds 99%, while the specificity is greater than 96%. Our test produces an objective “Pass” or “Refer” result, which does not require further interpretation by a specialist. Our “Refer” result provides an indication that the baby’s brainwave response is not consistent with a normal hearing child, but does not quantify the severity of the possible hearing impairment.


Compliant with standard of care guidelines; Easy to use .    Our ALGO screener meets the requirements and recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Joint Commission on Infant Hearing for universal newborn hearing screening for low refer rates, minimizing parental anxiety and the cost of re-screening. In addition, our test does not require an audiologist or physician to conduct the screening or interpret the results.


Immediate crib-side results .    Our screening tests can be conducted within hours after birth. Middle ear fluid and ear canal debris, which are often still present in the first 12 to 24 hours of after birth, do not significantly impact the ALGO’s ability to obtain test results. ALGO hearing screenings can be performed and results are most often obtained prior to discharge from the hospital.


The ALGO newborn hearing screening product line was first introduced in 1985. We acquired the ALGO product line in 1987, and we have since introduced seven new versions of the ALGO screener using the same AABR technology. We currently market the ALGO 3 and our latest hearing screening product, the handheld ALGO 3i screener.


    ALGO 3i Newborn Hearing Screener.     In June 2003, we introduced the handheld ALGO 3i hearing screener. The ALGO 3i utilizes our proprietary AABR technology and operates similarly to our ALGO 3 without some of the ALGO 3 features (cart, storage drawers, large display screen), while adding a multiple-language user interface. The ALGO 3i product targets the need primarily in foreign markets for a handheld device that provides patient data storage and wireless data-transfer capabilities.


    ALGO 3 Newborn Hearing Screener.     In October 2001, we introduced the ALGO 3 newborn hearing screener. The ALGO 3 screener incorporates our proprietary AABR technology interfaced with a laptop computer and operating system software. This system uses our proprietary software to conduct simultaneous screening of both ears and conducts tests at 35 dB nHL. The ALGO 3 screener utilizes our proprietary software to automatically store results from every test, which facilitates prompt follow-up and tracking of patient results. Users can print daily, weekly, or monthly reports, create backup files, and integrate screening results into statewide databases.


Natus Echo-Screen Hearing Screening and Monitoring Product Line


Otoacoustic emissions are an objective measure of the function of the cochlea. OAE technologies record and analyze echoes generated by the hair cells of the inner ear through sound cables and disposable ear probes. There are several different types of OAE technologies, however, the two most common used for hearing screening are: transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, which are described below.


    Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions.     Transient Evoked OAE tests measure the echoes recorded after a brief stimuli over a range of frequencies. TEOAE technology tests several parts of the cochlea individually and simultaneously.


    Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions.     Distortion Product OAE tests are those echoes recorded after continuous and more intense stimuli are introduced at specific frequencies which test one part of the cochlea at a time.


To address the needs of hearing screening programs requiring a low cost device for the surveillance screening of newborns, infants, and children, we provide the Echo-Screen hearing screening product line. Unlike our AABR technology, which is designed to screen newborns prior to six months of age, the Echo-Screen device



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uses OAE technology, which makes it suitable for screening a wider range of patients, including newborns, infants and children. OAE technology is unable to detect hearing disorders affecting the neural pathways, such as auditory neuropathy. Nonetheless, our
Echo-Screen product provides the following benefits in specific markets:


Economical devices and single-use supplies .    The Echo-Screen line of devices and the single-use disposable supplies used with them are sold at lower price points than our ALGO hearing screening devices and disposable supplies. In international markets, many countries are in the early stages of establishing universal newborn hearing screening programs and the costs associated with implementing these programs can be significant. Economic considerations often dictate that OAE technology is the best solution for a hearing-screening program.


Effective for multiple patient populations .    After about six months of age, a child’s brain response to auditory stimuli changes. Because of these changes in response, our AABR technology is no longer as effective in identifying hearing impairment. Otoacoustic emissions technology is effective in identifying hearing impairment in newborns, children, and adults. Guidelines published by the Joint Commission on Infant Hearing establish that all children at risk of hearing impairment be monitored for possible hearing loss through age three.


Multiple technologies in one device .    The Echo-Screen line of products can be configured with any combination of up to three hearing screening technologies in one handheld device. These technologies are: (1) Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, (2) Distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and (3) Automated auditory brainstem response. Both TEOAE and DPOAE technologies can be complementary as they test the cochlea in different ways. TEOAE testing can be more valuable when used for screening purposes while DPOAE testing will be more valuable when evaluating hearing impairment at specific frequencies.


The Echo-Screen product line, based on clinically validated automated otoacoustic emissions technology (“AOAE”) delivers clicks or tone bursts to the patient’s ear canal via a probe which is inserted within the ear canal. The patient’s cochlea generates sound waves in response to these clicks or tone bursts. The ear probe, which contains a very sensitive microphone, then measures and records the sound wave responses of the patient’s cochlea. The Echo-Screen device analyzes the patient’s response and automatically provides a “pass” or “refer” result.


Hearing Screening Supply Products


    ALGO Screening Supply Kits.     For infection control, accuracy, and ease of use, our ALGO screening devices are designed so that each newborn hearing test conducted with the ALGO screener is carried out with screening supplies designed specifically for use with our AABR technology. Natus offers a variety of packaging options that include single-use earphones, which we call Ear Couplers or Flexicouplers, and electrodes, which we call Jelly Tab sensors. All of our screening supplies are alcohol and latex-free, and our adhesives are specially formulated for use on the sensitive skin of newborns.


    Echo-Screen Supply Products.     For infection control, accuracy, and ease of use, our Echo-Screen devices are designed so that each hearing test conducted with the Echo-Screen screener is carried out with screening supplies designed specifically for use with our AOAE and AABR technology. Natus offers a variety of screening supply options that include single-use probe tips in a variety of sizes and single-use earphones. We also offer disposable electrodes for use with the AABR screening software.


    MiniMuffs Neonatal Noise Attenuators.     Our MiniMuffs, which are not designed for hearing screening, are disposable earmuffs designed to decrease noise exposure for babies in neonatal intensive care units. The MiniMuffs fit securely over a baby’s ear and reduce sound levels by at least seven decibels, representing a reduction of sound pressure of more than 50%. Our MiniMuffs product is sold worldwide and meets health care infection control standards through its single-use design.



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Jaundice Management




Babies are generally born with a quantity of red blood cells necessary for fetal life but in excess of their needs as newborns. The body, in a normal process known as hemolysis, breaks down excess red blood cells. Two byproducts of hemolysis are a yellow pigment called bilirubin and a proportional amount of carbon monoxide. Abnormal rates of hemolysis cause abnormal levels of bilirubin and carbon monoxide. An abnormal rate of hemolysis may also be an indicator of a number of other disorders including anemia, infection, and some genetic disorders.


High amounts of bilirubin in the body can cause a condition known as jaundice, with characteristic yellowing of the skin and eyes. The high level of bilirubin can result either from too much bilirubin being produced by hemolysis or from the body’s failure to excrete the bilirubin. Extremely high levels of bilirubin, or hyperbilirubinemia, are toxic and may cause irreversible brain damage and potentially result in death.


The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborns estimates that each year 60% of the approximately four million newborns in the U.S. become jaundiced. According to the Journal of the American Medical Association, neonatal jaundice is the single largest cause for hospital readmission of newborns in the U.S., and accounts for 50% of readmissions. Because of the serious consequences of hyperbilirubinemia, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all newborns be closely monitored for jaundice and has called for the physician to determine the presence or absence of an abnormal rate of hemolysis to establish the appropriate treatment for the newborn.


Depending on its cause, jaundice can be treated by helping the newborn to excrete the bilirubin or to reduce bilirubin production. In early stages, jaundice can be treated with phototherapy, hydration, and frequent feedings. Dangerous or toxic levels of bilirubin are treated by blood exchange transfusion, which is a high-risk procedure for newborns. The standard of care treatment for severe jaundice is phototherapy. During phototherapy, the patient is exposed to a light source, which converts the bilirubin to a form that is more easily excreted by the body. The optimal color of light to cause this conversion is in the blue range at a wavelength of approximately 450 nanometers. Most phototherapy lights use either fluorescent or halogen light sources. While these other light sources produce light that is effective in converting bilirubin, they also produce light outside the optimal color range that may include harmful ultraviolet and/or infrared light. Ultraviolet light can cause skin damage similar to that resulting from overexposure to the sun. In addition, fluorescent, and, in particular, halogen light sources generate heat energy, which can result in dehydration of the newborn.


Jaundice Management Products


In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued new guidelines for the treatment of jaundice in newborns. The guidelines recommend phototherapy as the standard of care for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in infants born at 35 weeks or more of gestation. The guidelines further highlight the need for “intense” phototherapy, and specifically recommend the use of the “blue” light treatment incorporated into our neoBLUE products.


We currently offer the following products that meet AAP guidelines and meet the needs of our customers related to the treatment of newborn jaundice:



neoBLUE Phototherapy Device.     In October 2002, we introduced our neoBLUE phototherapy device as a crib-side unit used for the treatment of jaundice. The device utilizes Light Emitting Diode, or LED, technology to generate a narrow spectrum of blue light that, we believe, is optimal for the conversion of bilirubin, and produces a negligible amount of both ultraviolet and infrared light. These LEDs emit a high-intensity band of blue light, which is clinically proven to be most effective in the breakdown of bilirubin. Because the neoBLUE phototherapy device emits significantly less ultraviolet light and heat than conventional phototherapy devices, it may reduce the risk of skin damage and dehydration for



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infants undergoing treatment. Also, the utilization of this light may result in a more rapid reduction of bilirubin levels in newborns and potentially reduce the treatment time associated with phototherapy.


    neoBLUE Mini Phototherapy Device.     In September 2004, we introduced our neoBLUE Mini phototherapy device. Designed as a smaller counterpart to our existing overhead neoBLUE phototherapy device, the neoBLUE mini system offers clinicians a more compact and portable alternative to other brands of phototherapy devices currently on the market. The neoBLUE mini device’s adjustable arm with pole mount facilitates attachment to a variety of patient care apparatuses such as incubators and radiant warmers, which are often used during phototherapy treatment.


    neoBLUE Cozy Phototherapy Device.     In October 2005, we received FDA 510(k) clearance for the newest extension of our neoBLUE line of LED Phototherapy lights. The neoBLUE Cozy, with its streamlined, oval design conforms to the shape of the baby and provides a light source from underneath the patient. The light source exposes the full length of the baby from head to toe, covering a larger surface area than standard phototherapy blankets, pads, or beds. We will begin marketing the neoBLUE Cozy in the first quarter of 2006.


    Biliband Eye Protector.     In October 2003, we began selling the Biliband Eye Protector, a single-patient use supply product designed to block light from reaching the eyes of newborns undergoing phototherapy treatment. Test results from an independent study demonstrate that the Biliband blocks more light than other leading brands of phototherapy eye shields. Moreover, unlike other phototherapy shields that may not stay in place very well, the Biliband’s unique Y-shaped design allows it to conform to various head shapes and remain in place.


Newborn Metabolic Screening




The goal of newborn metabolic screening is the early identification of conditions for which early and timely interventions can lead to the elimination or reduction of associated early mortality or lifelong disability. Each year, approximately four million babies in the U.S. participate in state-mandated newborn screening programs. Utilizing dried blood spot specimens collected at the birthing site and mailed to state-specific or regional laboratories, these screening programs are generally regarded as successful and cost-effective. The efficiency of these programs depends on the integration of sample collection, laboratory testing, follow-up, diagnosis, timely treatment, and tracking of outcomes.


Currently, newborn metabolic screening programs are run by state public health agencies. Notably, the array of screening tests performed by each state varies and changes periodically. As many as ten or more treatable disorders can be detected through the use of reagent based screening technology. Recently some states have begun using tandem mass spectrometry in their newborn metabolic screening programs. Through the use of tandem mass spectrometry, more than 40 disorders of body chemistry can be detected in the analysis of a single blood specimen.


These rapid advances in screening are providing an increasing ability to develop effective treatments for a wider range of metabolic disorders. The availability of accurate demographic and other information is a key component in the identification of at-risk infants and the timely application of these treatments. Testing for a broader range of metabolic disorders in newborns has created the need for more efficient and complex data management. New federal and state initiatives, focusing on the security of medical information, are coupled with a desire to increase the utility of newborn metabolic screening data. Key to this utility is the integration of public health data into a central repository.


Data Management Products


Our Neometrics newborn screening data management products consist of an integrated suite of software modules that collect and analyze demographic data and test results associated with the newborn screening



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process. The suite of products assists laboratory personnel in quickly and accurately identifying infants with possible life-threatening disorders and to relay this information to appropriate medical personnel. With protocols customized to the specific rules and regulations of each state, the applications then assist in the management of patient follow-up and treatment. The key to the effectiveness of these applications is their ability to meet the specific requirements of high-volume, state-based newborn screening laboratories. The modular-based system utilizes an advanced database engine and is highly configurable. In addition, the latest designs of the modules utilize a standard and familiar graphical user interface format for ease of customer use. Comprehensive help systems and well-planned modules contain advanced look-up and retrieval features which provide rapid access to an individual patient record and all associated results. The primary modules are:


    Metabolic Screening Database System (“MSDS”).     MSDS is the core database module in a system that provides the newborn screening laboratory with a tool for the processing of laboratory test results and demographic data. The module is configured in a client-server system utilizing a state-of-the-art database engine. Sub-modules of MSDS provide for look-up and retrieval of specimen information, comprehensive on-line help systems, flexible reporting, and extensive data exporting capabilities.


    Case Management System (“CMS”).     Follow-up of presumptive cases is a time-consuming and laborious effort. The CMS module helps to automate the entire process by organizing daily workflow for follow-up staff according to their specific requirements. Linked to MSDS, the case management system uses a library of preprogrammed actions to highlight
time-critical tasks. Many of these tasks, such as the generation of letters to parents and physicians, can occur automatically.


    Voice Response System (“VRS”).     The voice response system provides on-demand spoken test results over a touch-tone phone to physicians and other authorized personnel. This module reduces the workload of lab staff by eliminating or reducing requests for newborn screening results.


    Tandem Mass Spectrometry Testing Upgrade.     Many customers have already invested in this next generation of newborn metabolic screening technology known as tandem mass spectrometry (“MS/MS”) in order to test each newborn for up to 40 or more disorders. Our MS/MS upgrade allows users to easily incorporate increasing numbers of metabolic screening tests and present the data and results in a useful manner.


    Automated Newborn Screening Data Transfer Utility (“iNSIST”).     This software utility automatically transfers data from state laboratories to the National Newborn Screening Information System (NNSIS) at the University of Texas, which acts as a data collection facility and clearing house for the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The iNSIST application can interface with Neometrics MSDS and CMS applications as well as other data management systems


    Lead Follow-Up.     This software provides the case management team with the ability to track lab specimens by geographic location and provide “one to many” analysis. An example of this would be to determine if lead exposure is caused at a school. Geographic tracking is critical when monitoring exposure to lead, as effective follow up and remediation must not only address the needs of the patient, but also the source of the exposure.






A full-term baby normally loses large amounts of heat and water vapor through the skin because of its relatively large amount of body surface area relative to its body weight. Newborns also sustain increased evaporative water loss due to the immaturity of the outer skin layers, resulting in a reduced ability to retain body water. In pre-term babies, this water loss is more exaggerated and can contribute to a high degree of body water loss. As the water passes through the newborn’s skin and evaporates from the skin surface, it contributes to a loss of body heat. This heat loss can be problematic, especially for premature babies, since newborns are limited in their ability to generate and conserve body heat.



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Heat shields provide a microenvironment for the newborn in order to control water loss and heat loss. Heat shields also allow for the creation of a high-humidity environment for the premature newborn. This humidified atmosphere decreases evaporative water loss from the newborn, and thereby reduces associated heat loss.


Thermoregulation Products


We sell the following products to meet the needs of newborn thermoregulation; they are used in neonatal units, nurseries, and postnatal wards in hospitals and clinics as well as in emergency transport vehicles:


    Igloo.     A high quality, integrated heat shield made of clear, medical-grade polycarbonate and acrylic materials. It has multiple uses in neonatal units, nurseries, and postnatal wards, and can be used during phototherapy, as an oxygen hood for large babies, and also within incubators under heat sources.


    Oxy-Igloo.     A half-cylinder clear plastic oxygen hood with a soft, disposable silicon flap that can be hand-cut to fit around larger, full-term babies.


    Foldadome.     A foldable, self-erecting oxygen hood that can be stored flat for service in emergency vehicles or intensive care units where storage facilities may be limited.


Pulmonary Function




Prior to delivery, the fetus depends on the placenta to provide the normal gas exchange functions of ventilation, the removal of carbon dioxide, and respiration, the oxygenation of blood. At delivery, the newborn loses the placental support and is then required to initiate breathing so that its lungs can support these necessary gas exchange functions. This transition requires that the lungs expand and fill with air while eliminating the amniotic fluid previously contained in the lungs. Some newborns have difficulty clearing the fluid from their lungs and thus require assistance with normal gas exchange. These newborns usually have some form of respiratory distress that compromises the ability of their lungs to eliminate carbon monoxide or absorb oxygen. These newborns typically have difficulty breathing, which may appear as rapid breathing, grunting with breathing efforts, or cyanosis, a blueness due to lack of oxygen. In particular, pre-term babies often suffer from immature lung development whereby their lungs are stiff and difficult to inflate. These pre-term babies often need to work harder in order to breathe, and they may still not be able to absorb adequate amounts of oxygen. Some pre-term or full-term babies will require supplemental oxygen due to other disease processes such as infection, or aspiration of substances that cause lung irritation.


Oxygen hoods are able to provide a microenvironment where high concentrations of oxygen are desired, well above what can be achieved with nasal prongs. When used in conjunction with an oxygen analyzer, oxygen hoods can deliver precise oxygen concentrations from 21% (room air) to nearly 100%.


Pulmonary Function Products


Our line of oxygen hood products stay in position over the newborn and are designed to provide optimal gas flow, unobstructed viewing, and access to the newborn. These products are made of clear, medical-grade polycarbonate, plastic, and acrylic materials. They are easy to clean and disinfect, stackable, and do not interfere with airflow when used inside an incubator. Natus sells the following oxygen hood products:


    Oxydome I and II.     Heatbox products for oxygen therapy made from a single piece of unbreakable, molded thermoplastic. The domes have no corners for ease of cleaning.


    Oxypod I and II.     Similar to the Oxydome with the same footprint and a slightly larger interior volume.


Bio-logic Product Lines


Through our acquisition of Bio-logic in January 2006, we have now extended our product offerings beyond those targeted solely for the care of newborns. In particular, we now have product offerings in three distinct new



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markets: diagnostic hearing assessment by audiologists and Ear, Nose and Throat (“ENT”) physicians, EEG monitoring for neurology, and computerized polysomnography used to detect sleep disorders. Bio-logic also markets a product line that is similar to our hearing screening products. These four product lines are described below.


Diagnostic Hearing Assessment by Audiologists and ENT Physicians


We design and manufacture a variety of products used to screen for or diagnose hearing loss, or to identify abnormalities affecting the peripheral and central auditory nervous systems. The technology used in most of these systems is either electrodiagnostic in nature or measures a response from the cochlea known as an otoacoustic emission. In 2004, Bio-logic added an enhancement to their hearing products line that facilitate testing of functional speech intelligibility in noise (HINT Pro).


Electrodiagnostic systems record electrical activity generated in the central nervous system. An electrodiagnostic testing device delivers acoustic stimuli to the ears while electrodes placed on the scalp record the brain’s electrical response. The most common auditory test performed with electrodiagnostic equipment is the auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. This test, which records brain waves that correspond to responses from the inner ear and brain stem, is used to screen for and define hearing loss characteristics, particularly for patients who cannot reliably verbally respond to standard behavioral tests of hearing. A technician with minimal training can operate an instrument that performs an automated ABR screening test. More advanced ABR testing techniques that either define the nature of the hearing loss or that screen for other auditory abnormalities such as an acoustic tumor, require the expertise of a trained clinician, usually an audiologist or an ENT physician, an understanding of the technology being used, and the ability to interpret complex waveforms that represent the brain’s electrical activity.


Our diagnostic hearing assessment product line consists of the Navigator Pro system, which is augmented by discrete software applications that are marketed as enhancements to the system.


    Navigator Pro.     The Navigator Pro EP System is a PC-based, configurable device that utilizes Evoked Potentials for use in the recording and display of human physiological data, for auditory screening purposes, and to assist in determining possible auditory and hearing-related disorders. Auditory stimuli are presented to the patient’s ear through an earphone or headphones, and the corresponding auditory brainstem responses from the patient are recorded using EEG electrodes placed on the scalp. The Navigator Pro EP System can be used for patients of all ages, from children to adults, including infants and geriatric patients. The device can be configured with additional software to upgrade the system with a combination of OAE and ABR screening as well as additional diagnostic functions as described below.


    Stacked ABR.     A modification of the standard ABR measure, developed to improve the sensitivity of ABR as a screening tool for auditory nervous system abnormalities. Currently, patients suspected of having an acoustic tumor, for example, are routinely referred for expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) tests because a less expensive screening method that has acceptable sensitivity to the presence of small tumors is not available. Based on the research and clinical data collected to date, stacked ABR holds significant promise as a viable, sensitive screening tool for auditory nervous system abnormalities, such as small acoustic tumors.


    CHAMP.     The Cochlear Hydrops Assessment Masking Procedure module is licensed from House Ear Institute and incorporated into our Navigator Pro product. CHAMP assists in the evaluation of cochlear hydrops, a fluid imbalance condition in the inner ear often associated with Meniere’s disease. CHAMP is a modified ABR test that uses unique acoustic stimuli and response measures to elicit a response pattern characteristic of cochlear hydrops.



M.A.S.T.E.R.     The M.A.S.T.E.R. technology, which Bio-logic introduced in 2003, defines the magnitude of hearing loss at specific frequencies, and is suitable in situations where patients cannot



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actively participate in the testing process. M.A.S.T.E.R allows both ears to be tested simultaneously and with multiple frequencies to define hearing loss characteristics quickly. This product incorporates computer-assisted interpretation features to meet the expanding needs of hearing health care givers who are involved in the follow-up of patients referred with the suspicion of hearing loss.


EEG Monitoring for Neurology


We design, manufacture and market a full line of computerized instruments (electroencephalographs or “EEGs” ) used to help diagnose the presence of seizure disorders, look for causes of confusion, and evaluate head injuries, tumors, infections, degenerative diseases, and metabolic disturbances that affect the brain. This type of testing is also done to confirm brain death in comatose patients. These systems and instruments work by detecting, amplifying, and recording the brain’s electrical impulses (EEGs). Routine EEG recording is done by placing electrodes on a patient’s scalp over various areas of the brain to record and detect patterns of activity and specific types of electrical events. EEG technologists perform the tests, and neurologists review and interpret the results.


Routine outpatient EEG testing is performed both in private physicians’ offices and hospital EEG laboratories, providing physicians with a clinical assessment of a patient’s condition. For patients with seizures that do not respond to conventional therapeutic approaches, long-term inpatient testing of EEG and behavior is used to determine if surgical solutions are appropriate.


Our diagnostic EEG monitoring product line for neurology consists of our Ceegraph VISION computer workstation, the Netlink EEG amplifier, the Netlink LTM, and the Netlink Traveler. These devices are typically used in concert, as part of an EEG “system” by the Neurology department of a hospital to assist in the diagnosis of assorted neurological conditions.


    Ceegraph VISION.     The Ceegraph VISION line of computerized EEG systems includes a broad range of products, from software licenses and ambulatory monitoring systems to advanced laboratory systems with multiple capabilities for EEG, ICU monitoring, long-term epilepsy monitoring of up to 128 channels, and powerful physician review stations with advanced quantitative EEG analysis capabilities.


    Netlink EEG.     A proprietary amplifier that interfaces the patient and computer and incorporates recent advances in amplifier and ergonomic design. Recent innovations in electronics technology and advanced internet-protocol data transmission enable Netlink EEG to provide recordings of up to 32 channels of digital data using Ethernet communication. Its custom cart allows the instrument to be moved easily and adjusted to the configuration needed.


    Netlink LTM.     Designed for use in long-term epilepsy monitoring applications allowing laboratories to place amplifiers and recording PCs anywhere in the facility using Ethernet data transmission, eliminating commonly encountered connectivity and associated data quality issues. We also offer two automated spike and seizure detection software options that assist in the identification of clinical events indicative of epilepsy: Stellate and Persyst. Stellate Systems’ patented algorithms include newborn seizure, seizure onset, and state-dependent seizure detection. Persyst’s Reveal is a neural network algorithm that detects spikes and seizures in adults and children.


    Netlink Traveler.     A solid-state, battery-operated ambulatory recorder for seizure monitoring that records continuous information from up to 32 channels and saves data on removable flash card media. Data can immediately be reviewed and analyzed using Ceegraph VISION and automatic spike and seizure programs.


A digital video option, which provides synchronized video recording of a patient’s behavior while recording electrical activity from the brain, is available for Ceegraph VISION systems utilizing Netlink EEG and LTM amplifiers, and for Ceegraph XL. SmartPack, a patented software option available with the Ceegraph line, is an innovative data compression process that reduces the size of data files by as much as 60%. Data compression is performed in real-time with no loss of information. Universal Reader is a physician’s review station that permits fast and easy data analysis in a graphical format using Ceegraph software.



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Computerized Polysomnography (Diagnostic Sleep Analysis)


Increasing public awareness of sleep disorders has made sleep medicine a rapidly growing specialty. The analysis of respiratory patterns, brain electrical activity and other physiological data has proven critical for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep-related diseases such as apnea, insomnia, and narcolepsy. We offer a broad range of products for the contemporary sleep laboratory, including fully configured laboratory systems, portable systems, and ambulatory recorders for home monitoring. Our Sleepscan systems provide flexible report generation capabilities, expert analysis modules, and many advanced features.


Our diagnostic EEG monitoring product line for polysomnography consists of our Sleepscan VISION computer workstation and the Sleepscan Netlink headbox, which are typically used together as a system for overnight sleep studies to assist in the diagnosis of several sleep disorders.


    Sleepscan VISION.     A sleep study entails whole-night recordings of brain electrical activity, muscle movement, airflow, respiratory effort, oxygen levels, electrocardiogram (“EKG”), and other parameters. These recordings result in over 1,000 pages of data that must be reviewed, analyzed, scored by a specialist, and summarized in a report—typically a costly and time-consuming process. Our Sleepscan system stores all of this information digitally and provides time-saving features and software for acquiring and analyzing data. Its flexibility enables the user to specify rules and personal preferences to be used during analysis. Once these rules and preferences are set, the system rapidly performs the analysis, summarizing the results graphically and incorporating them into a readily available detailed report. The user has the ability to verify the analysis, manually override sections as needed, modify parameters, and then re-analyze the data. The Sleepscan VISION’s customized analysis includes color-coded sleep stages, flow loop analysis, and other important features. Sleepscan Netlink systems, available in both desktop or laptop versions, include 40-channel recording capability and a built-in oximeter, a device that measures the oxygen content in the blood.


    Sleepscan Netlink.     Sleepscan console and laptop products feature the Netlink data acquisition system, which incorporates recent developments in superior amplifiers for sleep analysis. In addition to exceptional signal quality, the Sleepscan Netlink headbox includes a built-in oximeter, and allows the user to start and stop a study or perform electrode impedance testing either at the patient’s bedside or from the monitoring room. Sleepscan Netlink also offers a convenient electrode testing device for quality control.


We also market a broad line of disposables and accessories for the polysomnography laboratory. The Airflow Pressure Transducer uses pressure changes as an indicator of patient airflow levels, as contrasted to other monitoring devices that use temperature to indicate these levels. This product detects shallow breathing in situations where temperature related transducers might remain substantially unchanged. This method has been documented in industry publications to produce the signature waveform used in identifying a respiratory disorder known as Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome.


Hearing Screening


Our hearing screening product line developed by Bio-logic consists of the AuDX and ABaer hearing screeners. The AuDX hearing screener uses proprietary software to efficiently screen patients of any age for hearing loss using OAE technology. Our ABaer hearing screener is marketed primarily for the screening of newborns for hearing loss and can be configured to process both ABR and OAE screening technologies.


    AuDX.     Our AuDX product line consists of hand-held OAE hearing screening devices that are offered in a variety of configurations. They are suitable for use with newborns as well as older children and adults. Bio-logic expanded the flexibility of these devices in 2004 by offering a test protocol that can be used to screen adults for hearing loss. This protocol expands the market for AuDX screening into the internal medicine and family practice areas for use on those adults where mild amounts of hearing loss pose little communication barrier for an adult listener. Adults whose hearing loss does impact their ability to effectively communicate would be referred to an audiologist for a full evaluation.



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    ABaer.     The ABaer Hearing Screening System utilizes the patented Point Optimized Variance Ratio (“POVR”) algorithm, developed by researchers at House Ear Institute, to provide ABR and OAE screening on the same product platform. This device, which can easily be operated by an untrained technician, also has the capability to export data to a variety of third party databases, which are used to track the results of each test.


Segment and Geographic Information


We currently operate in one reportable segment. With the exception of our Neometrics newborn screening data management products (“Neometrics product line”), the nature of our products and production processes as well as type of customers and distribution methods are consistent among all of our product lines. Our Neometrics product line is differentiated from our other product lines in that it is not a medical device or related supply product, is not currently regulated by the FDA, and revenue is recognized under the percentage of completion basis. We acquired our Neometrics product line on July 1, 2003. We previously reported segment operating results for the Neometrics product line. However, for the year ending December 31, 2005, the product line did not meet the quantitative thresholds for segment reporting and is therefore included in the category titled All Other in Note 13—Segment, Customer and Geographic Information of our consolidated financial statements included in this report. We also believe that revenue and earnings from the Neometrics product line will not be of continuing significance in the future, particularly given the impact on our future results of our acquisition of Bio-logic in January 2006. Segment information for the years ended December 31, 2004 and 2003 has been restated to reflect the change in the structure of our reportable segments.


The accounting policies of the Company’s reportable segment are the same as those described in Note 1—Organization and Significant Accounting Polices of our consolidated financial statements contained in this report. The Company allocates resources to and evaluates the performance of its segment based on operating income. Direct revenue and costs of the segment are allocated to the segment, including depreciation expense and amortization of intangible assets. For management reporting purposes, corporate expenses are charged predominantly to the Medical Devices and Related Supplies segment. Asset totals disclosed by segment are directly managed by those segments and include accounts receivable, inventory, certain fixed assets, intangible assets and goodwill, and certain other assets. Assets that are not allocated specifically to the segment primarily include cash and cash equivalents,
short-term investments, and deferred tax assets.


Information regarding our sales and long-lived assets in the U.S. and in countries outside the U.S. is contained in Note 13—Segment, Customer and Geographic Information of our consolidated financial statements included in this report.


Our Customers


Our end-user customer base includes hospitals, clinics, laboratories, physicians, nurses, audiologists, and governmental agencies. Most of our international sales are to distributors, who in turn, resell our products to end users or sub-distributors.


Devices and Systems


Devices and systems revenue results from the sale of our ALGO, Echo-Screen and neoBLUE medical devices, and our Neometrics’ data management system.


We have sold approximately 6,900 ALGO newborn hearing screening devices and 2,300 neoBLUE phototherapy devices worldwide, including approximately 4,500 ALGO devices that have been installed in the U.S. Approximately 6,500 Echo-Screen devices have been sold, including those sold by Fischer-Zoth prior to our acquisition of the company in September 2004. While the majority of our device and systems sales have been to customers in the U.S., we have also sold ALGO hearing screening devices in 38 other countries. Our Neometrics newborn screening data management system is currently installed in 15 state-based newborn metabolic screening programs in the U.S.



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Supplies and Services


Supplies and services revenue results from sales of disposable supplies for our ALGO and Echo-Screen medical devices, products licensed from Nascor, Minimuffs, software maintenance agreements for our Neometrics data management system, as well extended service agreements on our medical devices.


We sold ALGO hearing screening supplies to conduct approximately 2.5 million newborn hearing screenings in 2005, 2.5 million newborn hearing screenings in 2004, and 2.3 million newborn hearing screenings in 2003. Our largest customer, whose purchases of ALGO hearing screening supplies represented 10% of total unit sales in 2004, reduced their purchase by half in 2005. Beginning in the first quarter of 2006, this customer is again purchasing disposable supplies on a unit basis at approximately the same rate they did in 2004.


While the majority of our sales of supplies have been to customers in the U.S., we have also sold ALGO hearing screening supplies in 31 other countries. Sales of our ALGO hearing screening supplies in international markets increased by 40% on a unit basis in 2005, compared to 2004. Because of the nature of the packaging and variety of supplies used with our Echo-Screen line of hearing screeners it is difficult to determine the number of screens conducted with this product line. In 2003, the Company also began selling a line of disposable and semi-disposable newborn care products manufactured by Nascor Pty. Ltd. through our distribution network in North America and Europe.


In 2005, 2004 and 2003, sales to no single end-user customer comprised more than 10% of our revenue, and revenue from services was less than 10% of our revenue.


Revenue by Product Category


Revenue from Devices and Systems, and Supplies and Services, as a percent of total revenue for the years ending December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003 is as follows:


and Systems

and Services




   46 %   54 %   100 %


   39 %   61 %   100 %


   30 %   70 %   100 %


Marketing and Sales




Our marketing strategy is to differentiate our products by their level of quality, performance, and customer benefit. We educate customers and potential customers worldwide about our products through several traditional methods, such as, but not limited to:


    Trade conference exhibits;


    Direct presentations to healthcare professionals;


    Publications in professional journals and trade magazines;


    The internet via our website, www.natus.com;


    Print and direct mail advertising campaigns; and


    Sponsorship of and participation in clinical education seminars.


We believe that educational efforts directed at government agencies and key physicians and clinicians about the benefits of universal screening in terms of patient outcomes and long-term treatment costs are a key element of our marketing strategy.



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Direct Sales


In the U.S. we sell our products directly to our customers utilizing a direct sales approach. This direct sales organization is a significant benefit to the Company, allowing us to maintain a higher level of customer service and satisfaction than would otherwise be possible by another distribution method. Revenue from our direct sales channels as a percent of total revenue was 84%, 79% and 83% in 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively. We previously had direct sales organizations in Japan and the United Kingdom (“U.K.”). However, in 2004 we ceased selling through a direct sales force in Japan and began to sell through a distributor, and in February 2006 we ceased selling through a direct sales force in the U.K. and began to sell through a distributor.


Distributor Sales


Outside the U.S. we rely exclusively on our distributor sales channel, which consists of distributors selling Natus products into more than 80 countries as of December 31, 2005. We sell products to our distributors under substantially the same terms as sales through our direct sales channels. Terms of sales to distributors are EXW, reflecting that goods are shipped “ex works,” in which title and risk of loss are assumed by the distributor at the shipping point. Distributors are generally given exclusive rights in their territories to purchase products from Natus and resell to end users or sub-distributors. Our distributors typically perform marketing, sales, and technical support functions in their respective markets. Each distributor may sell Natus products directly to their customer, via other distributors or resellers, or both. We actively train our distributors in product marketing, selling, and technical service techniques. Revenue from sales through our network of distributors was approximately 16%, 21% and 17% of our revenue in 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively.


Group Purchasing Organizations


More than 90% of the hospitals in the U.S. are members of group purchasing organizations (“GPO”s), which negotiate volume purchase prices for member hospitals, group practices, and other clinics. Direct purchases by members of group purchasing organizations accounted for approximately 28%, 46% and 39% of our revenue in 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively. Direct purchases by members of one GPO, Novation, accounted for approximately 15%, 20% and 22% of our revenue in 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively. Our revenue recognition policies related to sales to GPO members are described in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, contained in this report.


Third-Party Reimbursement


In the U.S., health care providers generally rely on third-party payors, including private health insurance plans, federal Medicare, state Medicaid, and managed care organizations, to reimburse all or part of the cost of the procedures they perform. Third-party payors can affect the pricing or the relative attractiveness of our products by regulating the maximum amount of reimbursement these payors provide for services. In general, reimbursement for newborn screening is included in the lump-sum payment for the newborn’s birth and hospitalization. For this reason, we are not able to measure a reimbursement success rate for our screening products.


Reimbursement systems in international markets vary significantly by country or by regions within countries, and may include both private and government sponsored insurance.


Customer Service and Support


We provide a one-year warranty on all medical device products. We also sell extended service agreements on our medical device products. Service for our domestic customers is provided by a Company-owned service center that performs all service, repair, and calibration services. Service for our international customers is provided by a combination of Company-owned facilities and
third-party vendors on a contract basis.



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Other companies manufacture a significant portion of the components used in our products; however, we perform final assembly, testing, and packaging of most of the devices ourselves to control quality and manufacturing efficiency. We also use contract vendors to manufacture some of our disposable supply and medical device products. We perform regular quality audits of these vendors. We design, program, and produce our Neometrics newborn screening data management system at our New York facility.


We purchase materials and components from qualified suppliers that are subject to our stringent quality specifications and inspections. We conduct quality audits of our key suppliers, several of which are experienced in the supply of components to manufacturers of finished medical devices, or supplies for use with medical devices. Most of our purchased components are available from more than one supplier.


Our manufacturing, service, and repair facilities are subject to periodic inspection by federal, state, and foreign regulatory authorities. Our quality assurance system is subject to regulation by the FDA and other state government agencies. We are required to conduct our product design, testing, manufacturing, and control activities in conformance with the FDA’s quality system regulations and to maintain our documentation of these activities in a prescribed manner. Our San Carlos, California manufacturing, service, and repair facility is registered and/or licensed by the FDA and the State of California. We have passed all quality system regulations inspections of our facilities conducted by the FDA and respective states. In addition, our San Carlos facility has received ISO 13485 certification. ISO 13485 certification standards for quality operations have been developed to ensure that medical device companies know the standards of quality on a worldwide basis. We have also received the EC Certificate pursuant to the European Union Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC, which allowed us to place a CE mark on our products after assembling appropriate documentation.


Research and Development


We are committed to introducing new products and supporting current product offerings in our markets through a combination of internal as well as external efforts that are consistent with our corporate strategy.


Internal product development capabilities.     We believe that product development capabilities are essential to provide our customers with new product offerings. We plan to leverage our core technologies by introducing product line extensions as well as new product offerings.


Partnerships that complement our expertise.     We continue to seek strategic partners in order to develop products that may not otherwise be available to us. By taking advantage of our core competencies, we believe that we can bring products to market in an efficient manner, and leverage our distribution channels.


New opportunities through technology acquisition.     We continue to evaluate new and emerging technologies in order to identify new product opportunities for our customers. With our knowledge of the newborn market we believe that we can effectively develop technologies into successful new products.


Our research and development expenses were $4.3 million in 2005, $3.7 million in 2004, and $3.7 million in 2003.


Proprietary Rights


We protect our intellectual property through a combination of patent, copyright, trade secret, and trademark laws. At December 31, 2005, the Company held 22 U.S. patents, which will expire at various times from 2007 to 2023, and 20 foreign patents, and had eight U.S. and 51 foreign patent applications pending. Our patents and patent applications address various aspects of our current products and those in development including, but not limited to, the earphones used with our ALGO screeners, and certain features of our neoBLUE phototherapy



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devices. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights by filing patent applications for new features and products we develop. We enter into confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, consultants, and corporate partners, and seek to control access to our intellectual property, distribution channels, documentation, and other proprietary information. However, we believe that these measures afford only limited protection.


The original patent for an algorithm for analyzing auditory brainstem responses, which we licensed on a nonexclusive basis from a third party and upon which we developed our automated auditory brainstem response technology, expired in late 1999, and that subject matter is in the public domain. With respect to our neoBLUE phototherapy devices, the basic concept of using blue lights for phototherapy is well established in the technical literature and is therefore not patentable. However, we have several patents pending that pertain to some of the features in and designs of our neoBLUE phototherapy devices, and the design and manufacturing methods we use are proprietary to us. We cannot be certain that the patent applications we have filed to protect the features of our products will be allowed, and if allowed will be enforceable, and if enforceable will deter others from using similar technologies.


We capitalize the cost of purchased technology and intellectual property, as well as certain costs incurred in obtaining patent rights, and amortize these costs over the estimated economic lives of the related assets.




We sell our products in intensely competitive and rapidly evolving markets. We face competition from other companies in all of our product lines. Our competitors range from small privately-held companies to multinational corporations, and their product offerings vary in scope and breadth. We do not believe that any single competitor is dominant in any of our product lines.


We derive a significant portion of our revenue from the sale of disposable supplies that are used with our screening devices. In the U.S., we sell our supply products in a mature market. Because these products can generate high margins, we expect that our products, particularly our hearing screening supply products, could face increasing competition, including competitors offering lower prices, which could have an adverse affect on our revenue and margins.


We believe the principal factors that will draw clinicians and other buyers to our newborn testing, monitoring, or treatment products, including hearing screening, jaundice management, and newborn metabolic screening products, include:


    Level of specificity, sensitivity, and reliability of the product;


    Time required to obtain results with the product, such as to test for or treat a clinical condition;


    Relative ease of use of the product;


    Depth and breadth of the products features;


    Quality of customer support for the product;


    Frequency of product updates;


    Extent of third-party reimbursement of the cost of the product or procedure;


    Extent to which the products conform to standards of care guidelines; and


    Price of the product.


We believe that our primary competitive strength relates to the functionality and reliability of our products. Different competitors may have competitive advantages in one or more of the categories listed above and they may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, and sale of their products.



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Government Regulation


FDA’s Premarket Clearance and Approval Requirements


Unless an exemption applies, each medical device that we propose to market in the U.S. must first receive one of the following types of FDA premarket review authorizations under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act, as amended:


    Clearance via Section 510(k); or


    Premarket approval via Section 515 if the FDA has determined that the medical device in question poses a greater risk of injury.


The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to 12 months, but can take longer. The process of obtaining premarket approval via Section 515 is much more costly, lengthy, and uncertain. Premarket approval generally takes from one to three years, but can take even longer. We cannot be sure that the FDA will ever grant either 510(k) clearance or premarket approval for any product we propose to market.


The FDA decides whether a device must undergo either the 510(k) clearance or premarket approval process based upon statutory criteria. These criteria include the level of risk that the agency perceives to be associated with the device and a determination of whether the product is a type of device that is substantially equivalent to devices that are already legally marketed. The FDA places devices deemed to pose relatively less risk in either class I or class II, which requires the manufacturer to submit a premarket notification requesting 510(k) clearance, unless an exemption applies. The premarket notification must demonstrate that the proposed device is substantially equivalent in intended use and in safety and effectiveness to an existing legally marketed device that is a class I, class II, pre-amendment class III device, or any of those for which the FDA has not yet called for submission of a premarket approval.


The FDA has classified our ALGO and Echo-Screen hearing screeners and our neoBLUE phototherapy devices as class II devices. The FDA has classified our Nascor line of neonatal heatshields and oxygen delivery systems as class I devices. The FDA to date has not regulated data management software, including our Neometrics newborn screening data management system.


The FDA places devices deemed to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices, or devices deemed to be not substantially equivalent to a predicate device, in class III. The FDA requires these devices to undergo the premarket approval process in which the manufacturer must prove the safety and effectiveness of the device. A premarket approval application must provide extensive preclinical and clinical trial data. To date, the FDA has not classified any of our products as class III devices.


The FDA may require results of clinical trials in support of a 510(k) submission and generally requires clinical trial results for a premarket approval application. In order to conduct a clinical trial on a significant-risk device, the FDA requires manufacturers to apply for and obtain, in advance, an investigational-device exemption. The investigational-device exemption application must be supported by appropriate data, such as animal and laboratory testing results. If the FDA and the Institutional Review Boards at the clinical trial sites approve the investigational-device exemption application for a significant-risk device, the manufacturer may begin the clinical trial. An investigational-device exemption approval provides for a specified clinical protocol, including the number of patients and study sites. If the manufacturer deems the product a non-significant risk device, the product will be eligible for more abbreviated investigational-device exemption requirements. If the Institutional Review Boards at the clinical trial sites concur with the non-significant risk determination, the manufacturer may begin the clinical trial.



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The following chart shows the regulatory approvals of our products in the U.S., Europe, Japan, Oceania, and Canada:


Natus Device   FDA 510(k)   CE Mark   Japan
  Oceania   Canada

ALGO 3i screener

          X                   X                   X                   X                   X        

ALGO 3 screener

  X   X   X   X   X

Echo-Screen screener

  X   X   X   X   X


  X   X   X   X    

neoBLUE phototherapy device

  X   X   X   X   X

neoBLUE mini phototherapy device

  X   X       X   X

neoBLUE cozy phototherapy device

  X   X       X   X


FDA Regulation


Numerous FDA regulatory requirements apply to our marketed devices. These requirements include:


    FDA quality system regulations which require manufacturers to create, implement, and follow design, testing, control, documentation, and other quality assurance procedures;


    Medical device reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA certain types of adverse and other events involving their products; and


    FDA general prohibitions against promoting products for unapproved uses.


Class II devices may also be subject to special controls applied to them, such as performance standards, post-market surveillance, patient registries, and FDA guidelines that may not apply to class I devices. Our products are currently subject to FDA guidelines for 510(k) cleared devices and are not subject to any other form of special controls, such as a requirement to conduct a screening in a laboratory within a medical facility. We believe we are in compliance with the applicable FDA guidelines, but we could be required to change our compliance activities or be subject to other special controls if the FDA changes its existing regulations or adopts new requirements.


We are subject to inspection and market surveillance by the FDA to determine compliance with regulatory requirements. If the FDA finds that we have failed to adequately comply, the agency can institute a wide variety of enforcement actions, ranging from a public warning letter to more severe sanctions such as:


    Fines, injunctions, and civil penalties;


    Recall or seizure of our products;


    Issuance of public notices or warnings;


    Imposition of operating restrictions, partial suspension, or total shutdown of production;


    Refusal of our requests for 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval of new products;


    Withdrawal of 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval already granted; or


    Criminal prosecution.


The FDA also has the authority to require repair, replacement, or refund of the cost of any medical device manufactured or distributed by us. Our failure to comply with applicable requirements could lead to an enforcement action that may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.



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Other U.S. Regulations


We also must comply with numerous additional federal, state, and local laws relating to matters such as safe working conditions, manufacturing practices, environmental protection, biohazards, fire hazard control, and hazardous substance disposal. We believe we are currently in compliance with applicable safety, quality, environmental-protection, biohazard, and hazardous-substance-disposal regulations.


Foreign Regulation


In the foreign countries in which we sell or plan to sell our FDA-regulated products, these products are also regulated as medical devices, and are subject to regulatory requirements by foreign governmental agencies similar to those of the FDA. Our manufacturing facilities are audited and have been certified to be ISO900l/EN46001 compliant, which allows us to sell our products in Europe. Our manufacturing facilities are subject to CE Mark and ISO 9001 inspection by TÜV Rheinland. We plan to seek approval to sell our products in additional countries. The time and cost required to obtain market authorization from other countries and the requirements for licensing a product in another country may differ significantly from FDA requirements.




On December 31, 2005, we had approximately 117 full time employees worldwide. None of our employees are represented by a labor union. We have not experienced any work stoppages and consider our relations with our employees to be good. On March 1, 2006, and primarily as a result of our acquisition of Bio-logic, we increased our headcount to approximately 220 full time employees.


Executive Officers


The following table lists our executive officers and their ages as of March 1, 2006:






James B. Hawkins

   50    President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

Steven J. Murphy

   54    Vice President Finance and Chief Financial Officer

William L. Mince

   54    Vice President Operations

Kenneth M. Traverso

   45    Vice President Marketing and Sales

D. Christopher Chung, M.D.

   42    Vice President Medical Affairs, R&D, and Engineering


James B. Hawkins has served as President and Chief Executive Officer, and as a member of the Board of Directors since joining Natus in April 2004. Mr. Hawkins has over 25 years of combined medical device and financial management experience. Prior to joining Natus, he was President and Chief Executive Officer of Invivo Corporation (Nasdaq: SAFE) for 19 years. Invivo Corporation, maker of multi-parameter vital sign monitoring equipment used in hospitals, was acquired in early 2004 by Intermagnetics General Corporation (Nasdaq: IMGC). He earned a Bachelor of Commerce degree, specialized in Management from Santa Clara University and a Masters of Business Administration—Finance degree from San Francisco State University.


Steven J. Murphy has served as Chief Financial Officer since February 2006, Vice President Finance since June 2003, and joined Natus in September 2002 as Director of Finance. From February 2002 through September 2002, Mr. Murphy was interim Controller at Travel Nurse International, a temporary staffing firm that was acquired by Medical Staffing Network in December 2002. From October 1998 through January 2002, Mr. Murphy was Controller of AdvisorTech Corporation, an international software development company providing IT-based solutions in the field of investments, where he was responsible for financial reporting of domestic, Asian and European operations with significant reporting responsibilities to the board of directors and investor groups. From 1996 to 1998 he was Vice President Finance of RWS Group, LLC, an international service company providing management of language-related projects. Mr. Murphy holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from California State University, Chico. Mr. Murphy is a certified public accountant.



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William L. Mince has served as our Vice President Operations since joining Natus in October 2002. From November 2000 to September 2002, Mr. Mince served as President and Founder of My Own Jukebox, an Internet retail company. From July 1998 to October 2000, Mr. Mince was a consultant with the majority of his time spent as Senior Vice President Network Solutions for Premier Retail Network, a media broadcasting company. From July 1997 to June 1998, Mr. Mince served as President and Chief Operating Officer of Ophthalmic Imaging Systems, a publicly-held medical device company. From July 1994 to June 1997, Mr. Mince was Vice President Operations with Premier Retail Network. From May 1988 to June 1994, Mr. Mince was Director of Operations for Nellcor, a medical device company. Mr. Mince holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from the University of Redlands and a Masters of Business Administration degree from National University.


Kenneth M. Traverso has served as our Vice President Marketing and Sales since April 2002. From September 2000 to April 2002, he served as our Vice President Sales. From October 1999 to July 2000, Mr. Traverso served as President of DinnerNow.com Inc., an internet aggregator for the restaurant industry. From January 1998 to September 1999, Mr. Traverso served as Vice President Sales, Western Region of Alere Medical, an outpatient chronic disease management company. From May 1995 to January 1998, Mr. Traverso served as Vice President Marketing and Sales of AbTox, Inc., a low temperature sterilization company. From August 1990 to May 1995, Mr. Traverso served in various capacities at Natus, including Vice President Sales. From September 1984 to July 1990 Mr. Traverso served various positions at Nellcor, a medical device company, including Regional Sales Manager, Western Region. Mr. Traverso holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Administration & Marketing from San Francisco State University.


D. Christopher Chung, M.D. , has served as our Vice President R&D and Engineering since June 2003, and has served as our Vice President Medical Affairs since February 2003. Dr. Chung also served as our Medical Director from October 2000 to February 2003. From August 2000 to present, Dr. Chung has also served as a Pediatric Hospitalist at the California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco. From June 1997 to June 2000, Dr. Chung trained as a pediatric resident at Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. From May 1986 to July 1993, Dr. Chung worked as an Engineer at Nellcor, a medical device company. Dr. Chung holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Computer Mathematics from the University of Pennsylvania and a Doctor of Medicine degree from the Medical College of Pennsylvania-Hahnemann University School of Medicine. He is board certified in Pediatrics and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics.


ITEM 1A. Risk Factors


On January 5, 2006 we completed our acquisition of Bio-logic Systems Corp. There are numerous risks associated with having completed the acquisition


The completion of the acquisition may not result in improved operating results for us, or in our achieving financial condition superior to that which we would have achieved had we not completed the acquisition. The acquisition could fail to produce the benefits that we anticipate, or could have other adverse effects that we currently do not foresee. In addition, some of the assumptions that we have relied upon, such as achievement of operating synergies, may not be realized. In this event, the acquisition could result in reduced earnings of Natus as compared to the per-share earnings that would have been achieved by Natus if the acquisition had not occurred.


We used virtually all of our existing cash resources to complete the acquisition, and have also incurred indebtedness under a new credit facility for a portion of the purchase price. This usage of cash has had an adverse impact on our liquidity, and will force us to place more reliance on cash flow from operations for our liquidity. If our cash flow from operations is not sufficient for our needs, our business could be adversely affected. If we are required to seek additional external financing to support our need for cash, we may not have access to financing on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. Alternatively, we may obtain additional financing on terms that are dilutive to existing holders of our common stock or that include covenants that restrict our business, or both.



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We entered into a senior secured borrowing facility to obtain a portion of the funds needed to complete the acquisition. The loan causes us to incur interest charges for such time as the loan is outstanding. In addition, the loan contains various covenants by us that directly or indirectly restrict our ability to engage in activities that we may otherwise believe to be in the best interests of the company. The loan is secured by the assets of the Company, and this security interest may also negatively effect our flexibility to engage in financing or other activities in future periods.


If we fail to successfully integrate the operations of Natus and Bio-logic, we may not realize the potential benefits of the acquisition. The integration of the operations of Natus and Bio-logic is a time consuming and expensive process and may disrupt our operations if it is not completed in a timely and efficient manner. Bio-logic’s primary offices are located in Mundelein, Illinois and it also has employees and contractors in, among other places, Israel and Poland. The geographical distance between Bio-logic’s and our facilities may further adversely affect our ability to integrate these operations. If this integration effort is not successful, our results of operations could be harmed, employee morale could decline, key employees could leave, and customers could cancel existing orders or choose not to place new ones. In addition, we may not achieve the synergies or other benefits of the acquisition that we anticipate. We may encounter the following difficulties, costs and delays involved in integrating these operations:


    Failure to successfully manage relationships with customers and other important business partners;


    Failure of customers to continue using the products and services of the combined company;


    The loss of key employees;


    Challenges encountered in managing larger, more geographically dispersed operations;


    Diversion of the attention of management from other ongoing business concerns; and


    Potential impairment charges incurred to write down the carrying amount of intangible assets generated as a result of the acquisition.


We have a history of losses, variable quarterly results, and seasonality in the sale of our products, and may not maintain profitability in the future


Since our inception, we have incurred significant net losses, including net losses for the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, and we may incur net losses in the future. As of December 31, 2005, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $30.8 million. Additionally, our revenue and operating results have varied significantly from quarter to quarter in the past and may continue to fluctuate in the future. The following are among the factors that could cause our revenue, operating results, and margins to fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter:


    Budgeting cycle of our customers, particularly government entities, in the U.S. and internationally;


    Size and timing of specific sales, such as large purchases of our devices and systems or our supplies and services, by government agencies or hospital systems;


    Trade-in allowances or other concessions in connection with the introduction of new products or improvements to existing products;


    Length and unpredictability of our sales cycle, particularly for our Neometrics products which may have sales cycles that are longer or different from the sales cycles of our other products; and


    Marked changes caused by rapidly evolving technology.


In addition, we experience seasonality in our revenue. For example, our sales typically decline from our fourth fiscal quarter to our first fiscal quarter, due to patterns in the capital budgeting and purchasing cycles of our current and prospective customers, many of which are government agencies. We may also experience declining sales in the third fiscal quarter due to summer holiday and vacation schedules. We anticipate that we



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will continue to experience these seasonal fluctuations, which may lead to fluctuations in our quarterly operating results. We believe that you should not rely on our results of operations for interim periods as an indication of our expected results in any future period.


We anticipate that it will become increasingly difficult for us to manage our expenses as we:


    Continue to invest in research and development to enhance our hearing-screening and phototherapy product lines, the technologies we acquired from Bio-logic, and other products and technologies;


    Develop additional applications for our current technology;


    Increase our marketing and selling activities, particularly outside the U.S.;


    Develop additional infrastructure and hire required management and other employees to keep pace with our growth


As a result of these factors, we may need to generate proportionately higher revenue to maintain profitability. We cannot be certain that we will be able to sustain profitability in the future.


Our operations may be restricted by the terms of our debt, which could adversely affect us


The credit facility that we entered into to finance a portion of the purchase price of Bio-Logic includes a number of restrictive covenants. These covenants could adversely affect us by limiting our ability to plan for or react to market conditions or to meet our capital needs. These covenants will, among other things, restrict our ability to:


    Incur more debt;


    Create liens;


    Pay dividends and make distributions or repurchase stock;


    Make large capital expenditures; and


    Merge, consolidate, or make other changes to our corporate structure, or transfer or sell assets.


In addition, our credit agreement requires us to maintain certain financial ratios and meet other financial covenants. Our failure to comply with these ratios or covenants would cause a default that, if not cured or waived, could result in our being required to repay the borrowing under our credit facility before its due date. If we are unable to make this repayment or otherwise refinance the borrowing, the lender under our credit agreement could foreclose on our assets. If we refinance the borrowing on less favorable terms, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted by increased costs and rates. In addition, our failure to maintain covenants related to our credit agreement could have an impact on our other contractual arrangements that require us to maintain third-party credit related covenants.


We may be unable to service our debt


Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our obligations with respect to our debt will depend on our financial and operating performance. We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us to enable us to service our debt or to fund our other liquidity needs. If we are unable to meet our debt obligations or fund our other liquidity needs, we may need to restructure or refinance all or a portion of our debt or sell certain of our assets. We cannot assure you that we would be able to restructure or refinance any of our debt on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, which could cause us to default on our debt obligations and impair our liquidity. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with less favorable covenants, which could further restrict our business operations.



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We have relied, and expect to continue to rely, on sales of our newborn screening products for the majority of our revenue, and a decline in sales of these products could cause our revenue to fall


We expect that the revenue from our newborn hearing screening products will continue to account for a majority of our revenue for at least the next year. Any factors adversely affecting the pricing of our newborn hearing screening devices and related supplies, or demand for our newborn hearing screening products, including physician acceptance or the selection of competing products, could cause our revenue to decline and our business to suffer.


In the United States we sell our newborn hearing screening products in a mature market


We face competition from other companies in all of our product lines. Our competitors range from small privately held companies to multinational corporations, and their product offerings vary in scope and breadth. We do not believe that any single competitor is dominant in any of our product lines.


We derive a significant portion of our revenue from the sale of disposable supplies that are used with our hearing screening devices. In the U.S., we sell our supply products in a mature market. Because these products can generate high margins, we expect that our products, particularly our hearing screening supply products, could face increasing competition, including competitors offering lower prices, which could have an adverse affect on our revenue and margins.


We believe that our primary competitive strength relates to the functionality and reliability of our products. Our competitors may have certain competitive advantages which include the ability to devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of their products. Consequently, we may need to increase our efforts, and related expenses for research and development, to maintain or improve our position.


We expect recurring sales to our existing customers to generate a majority of our revenue in the future, and if our existing customers do not continue to purchase products from us, our revenue may decline.


Our business could be harmed if our competitors establish cooperative relationships with large medical device vendors or rapidly acquire market share through industry consolidation


Large medical device vendors may acquire or establish cooperative relationships with our current competitors. We expect that the medical device industry will continue to consolidate. New competitors or alliances among competitors may emerge and rapidly acquire significant market share, which would harm our business and financial prospects.


Our operating results may decline if we do not succeed in developing, acquiring and marketing additional products or improving our existing products


We intend to develop and acquire additional products and technologies for the screening, detection, treatment, monitoring and tracking of common medical ailments. Developing and acquiring new products, and improving our existing products, to meet the needs of current and future customers requires significant investments in research and development. If we fail to successfully sell new products or update our existing products, our operating results may decline as our existing products reach the end of their commercial life cycles.


In order to accurately recognize revenue on long-term development and implementation contracts associated with our Neometrics newborn screening data management systems, we must be able to accurately estimate the total cost of completing a project. In arriving at these estimates, we must make assumptions about future costs that may prove to be inaccurate.


We recognize revenue from our Neometrics newborn screening data management systems, which are generally highly configurable, on the percentage of completion basis over the development and implementation



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period of the associated installation. The development and implementation period typically ranges from six to nine months. In order to determine percentage of completion, we must be able to accurately estimate the total cost of the development and implementation process. If our estimates of the future costs to be incurred are understated, our future gross profit would be negatively impacted, and the impact could be material to our results of operations.


If we fail in our efforts to educate clinicians, government agency personnel, and third-party payors on the effectiveness of our products we will not achieve future sales growth


It is critical to the success of our sales efforts that we educate a sufficient number of clinicians, hospital administrators, and government agencies about our products and the costs and benefits of their use. The commercial success of our products depends upon clinician, government agency, and other third-party payor confidence in the economic and clinical benefits of our products as well as their comfort with the efficacy, reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of our products. We believe that clinicians will not use our products unless they determine, based on published peer-reviewed journal articles and experience, that our products provide an accurate and cost-effective alternative to other means of testing or treatment. Our customers may choose to use competitive products, which may be less expensive or may provide faster results than our devices. Clinicians are traditionally slow to adopt new products, testing practices, and clinical treatments, partly because of perceived liability risks and the uncertainty of third-party reimbursement. If more clinicians, government agencies, and hospital administrators do not adopt our products, we may not maintain profitability. Factors that may adversely affect the medical community’s acceptance of our products include:


    Publication of clinical study results that demonstrate a lack of efficacy or cost-effectiveness of our products;


    Changing governmental and physician group guidelines;


    Performance, quality, price, and total cost of ownership of our products relative to other such products;


    Our ability to maintain and enhance our existing relationships and to form new relationships with leading physicians, physician organizations, hospitals, state laboratory personnel, and third-party payors;


    Changes in state and third-party payor reimbursement policies for our products; and


    Adoption of federal, state and foreign laws mandating or requiring universal newborn hearing screening and metabolic screening.


Our plan to expand our international operations will result in increased costs and is subject to numerous risks; if our efforts are not successful, this could harm our business


The domestic market for our ALGO hearing screening products is mature and we plan to expand our international sales and marketing efforts to increase sales of our products in foreign countries. Following our acquisition of Fischer-Zoth in September 2004, sales of our Echo-Screen OAE device have contributed to a significant portion of our sales outside the U.S. We have only begun over the past five years to significantly develop our distributor sales force outside the U.S. We may not realize corresponding growth in revenue from growth in international unit sales, due to the lower average selling prices we receive on sales outside of the U.S. Even if we are able to successfully expand our international selling efforts, we cannot be certain that we will be able to create or increase demand for our products outside of the U.S. Our international operations are subject to other risks, which include:


    Impact of possible recessions in economies outside the U.S.;


    Political and economic instability, including instability related to war and terrorist attacks in the U.S. and abroad;



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    Contractual provisions governed by foreign law, such as local law rights to sales commissions by terminated distributors;


    Dependence of demand for our products on health care spending by foreign governments;


    Greater difficulty in accounts receivable collection and longer collection periods;


    Difficulties of staffing and managing foreign operations;


    Reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries and potentially conflicting intellectual property rights of third parties under the laws of various foreign jurisdictions;


    Difficulty in obtaining and maintaining foreign regulatory approval; and


    Attitudes by clinicians, and cost reimbursement policies, towards use of disposable supplies that are potentially unfavorable to our business.


If guidelines mandating universal newborn screening do not continue to develop in foreign countries and governments do not mandate testing of all newborns as we anticipate, or if those guidelines have a long phase-in period, our revenues may not grow


We estimate that approximately 90 to 95% of the children born in the U.S. are currently being tested for hearing prior to discharge from the hospital. To date, there has been only limited adoption of newborn hearing screening prior to hospital discharge by foreign governments, and the phase-in period varies from several months to several years. The widespread adoption of these guidelines depends, in part, on our ability to educate foreign government agencies, neonatologists, pediatricians, third-party payors, and hospital administrators about the benefits of universal newborn screening as well as the use of our products to perform the screening and monitoring. Our revenues may not grow if governments do not require universal newborn screening prior to hospital discharge, or if physicians or hospitals are slow to comply with those guidelines, or if governments provide for a lengthy phase-in period for compliance.


Because we rely on distributors or sub-distributors to sell our products in most of our markets outside of the U.S., our revenue could decline if our existing distributors reduce the volume of purchases from us, or if our relationship with any of these distributors is terminated


We currently rely on our distributors or sub-distributors for a majority of our sales outside the U.S. Our reliance on international distributors has increased with our decision in 2004 to close our Japanese sales subsidiary and sell through a distributor in Japan, and our acquisition of Fischer-Zoth, which sells its products through distributors in Europe and Asia. Some distributors also assist us with regulatory approvals and education of clinicians and government agencies. We intend to continue our efforts to increase our sales in Europe, Japan and other developed countries. If we fail to sell our products through our international distributors, we would experience a decline in revenues unless we begin to sell our products directly in those markets. We cannot be certain that we will be able to attract new international distributors to market our products effectively or provide timely and cost-effective customer support and service. Even if we are successful in selling our products through new distributors, the rate of growth of our revenue could be harmed if our existing distributors do not continue to sell a large dollar volume of our products. None of our existing distributors are obligated to continue selling our products.


We may be subject to foreign laws governing our relationships with our international distributors. These laws may require us to make payments to our distributors if we terminate our relationship for any reason, including for cause. Some countries require termination payments under local law or legislation that may supersede our contractual relationship with the distributor. These payments could be equal to a year or more of gross profit on sales of our products that the distributor would have earned. We have terminated our relationship with certain distributors in the past. To date, we have not been required to make any material termination payments under local laws. Any required payments would adversely affect our operating results.



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Our operating results may suffer because of foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations and may require us to engage in foreign currency hedging


Substantially all of our sales contracts to our U.S. based customers provide for payment in U.S. dollars. In addition, sales to most of our international distributors provide for payment in U.S. dollars. However, substantially all of the revenue and expenses of our foreign subsidiaries are denominated in the applicable foreign currency. To date we have not undertaken any foreign currency hedging transactions and, as a result, our future revenue and expenses may be unpredictable due to exchange rate fluctuations that could result in foreign exchange gains and losses associated with the translation of assets denominated in foreign currencies.


If health care providers are not adequately reimbursed for procedures conducted with our devices or supplies, or if reimbursement policies change adversely, we may not be successful marketing and selling new products or technologies


Clinicians, hospitals, and government agencies are unlikely to purchase our products if clinicians are not adequately reimbursed for the procedures conducted with our devices or supplies. Unless a sufficient amount of conclusive, peer-reviewed clinical data about our products has been published, third-party payors, including insurance companies and government agencies, may refuse to provide reimbursement. Furthermore, even if reimbursement is provided, it may not be adequate to fully compensate the clinicians or hospitals. Some third-party payors may refuse adequate reimbursement unless the infant has demonstrable risk factors. If health care providers cannot obtain sufficient reimbursement from third-party payors for our products or the screenings conducted with our products, it is unlikely that our products will ever achieve significant market acceptance. Acceptance of our products in international markets will depend upon the availability of adequate reimbursement or funding within prevailing health care payment systems. Reimbursement, funding and health care payment systems vary significantly by country. We may not obtain approvals for reimbursement in a timely manner or at all.


Adverse changes in reimbursement policies in general could harm our business. We are unable to predict changes in the reimbursement methods used by third-party health care payors, particularly those in countries and regions outside the U.S. For example, some payors are moving toward a managed care system in which providers contract to provide comprehensive health care for a fixed cost per person. In a managed care system the cost of our products may not be incorporated into the overall payment for childbirth and newborn care or there may not be adequate reimbursement for our products separate from reimbursement for the procedure. Unless the cost of screening or treatment is reimbursed as a standard component of newborn care, universal screening is unlikely to occur and the number of infants likely to be screened with our products will be substantially reduced.


If we lose our relationship with any supplier of key product components or our relationship with a supplier deteriorates or key components are not available in sufficient quantities, our manufacturing could be delayed and our business could suffer


We contract with third parties for the supply of some of the components used in our products and the production of our disposable products. Some of our suppliers are not obligated to continue to supply us. We have relatively few sources of supply for some of the components used in our products and in some cases we rely entirely on sole-source suppliers. In addition, the lead-time involved in the manufacturing of some of these components can be lengthy and unpredictable. For example, during 2002, we experienced delays on the part of a supplier to provide us with volume production of our new Flexicoupler supplies. In 2005, we relied on a single supplier of cables used in our ALGO hearing screening devices to help us complete a field replacement program of those cables. If these or other suppliers become unwilling or unable to supply us with components meeting our requirements, it might be difficult to establish additional or replacement suppliers in a timely manner, or at all. This would cause our product sales to be disrupted and our revenue and operating results to suffer.


Replacement or alternative sources might not be readily obtainable due to regulatory requirements and other factors applicable to our manufacturing operations. Incorporation of components from a new supplier into our products may require a new or supplemental filing with applicable regulatory authorities and clearance or



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approval of the filing before we could resume product sales. This process may take a substantial period of time, and we may not be able to obtain the necessary regulatory clearance or approval. This could create supply disruptions that would harm our product sales and operating results.


Our sales efforts through group purchasing organizations and sales to high volume purchasers may reduce our average selling prices, which would reduce our revenue and gross profits from these sales


We have entered, and may in the future enter, into agreements with customers who purchase high volumes of our products. Our agreements with these customers may contain discounts from our normal selling prices and other special pricing considerations, which could cause our revenue and profits to decline. In addition, we have entered into agreements to sell our products to members of GPOs, which negotiate volume purchase prices for medical devices and supplies for member hospitals, group practices and other clinics. While we make sales directly to GPO members, the members of these GPOs now receive volume discounts from our normal selling price and may receive other special pricing considerations from us. Sales to members of one GPO, Novation, LLC, accounted for approximately 15%, 20%, and 22%, of our total revenue in the twelve months ended December 31, 2005, 2004 and 2003, respectively. Sales to members of GPOs accounted for approximately 28%, 46%, and 39% of our total revenue during the 12 months ended December 31, 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively. Other of our existing customers may be members of GPOs with which we do not have agreements. Our sales efforts through GPOs may conflict with our direct sales efforts to our existing customers. If we enter into agreements with new GPOs and some of our existing customers begin purchasing our products through those GPOs, our revenue and profits could decline.


If material weaknesses in the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting are identified and reported as a result of the assessment required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements


As directed by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Securities and Exchange Commission adopted rules requiring public companies to include a report of management on the company’s internal control over financial reporting in their annual reports on Form 10-K. We completed an implementation project in preparation for our first Section 404 reporting requirement that was effective for the year ending December 31, 2005 and the report of management is contained herein. This report contains an assessment by management of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting. In addition, our independent registered public accounting firm that has audited our financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2005 also attested to and reported on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as well as the operating effectiveness of our internal controls, and their attestation is contained herein.


While we have expended significant resources in developing the necessary documentation and testing procedures required by Section 404, there is a risk that in the future we will not comply with all of the requirements imposed by Section 404. If we do not continue to maintain an effectively designed and operating system of internal control, we may be unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in the future. This could result in an adverse reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.


Our failure to obtain necessary FDA clearances or approvals or to comply with FDA regulations could hurt our ability to commercially distribute and market our products in the U.S., and this would harm our business and financial condition


Unless an exemption applies, each medical device that we wish to market in the U.S. must first receive one of the following types of FDA premarket review authorizations:


    Clearance via Section 510(k) of the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act of 1938, as amended; or



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    Premarket approval via Section 515 of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act if the FDA has determined that the medical device in question poses a greater risk of injury.


The FDA’s 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to 12 months, but can take longer. The process of obtaining premarket approval is much more costly, lengthy and uncertain. Premarket approval generally takes from one to three years, but can take even longer. The FDA may not grant either 510(k) clearance or premarket approval for any product we propose to market. Furthermore, if the FDA concludes that future products using our technology do not meet the requirements to obtain 510(k) clearance, we would have to seek premarket approval. The FDA may impose the more burdensome premarket approval requirement on modifications to our existing products or future products, which in either case could be costly and cause us to divert our attention and resources from the development of new products or the enhancement of existing products.


Our business may suffer if we are required to revise our labeling or promotional materials, or the FDA takes an enforcement action against us for off-label uses


We may not promote or advertise the ALGO and Echo-Screen devices, MiniMuffs, neoBLUE phototherapy device products, or any future cleared or approved devices, for uses not within the scope of our clearances or approvals or make unsupported promotional claims about the benefits of our products. If the FDA determines that our claims are outside the scope of our clearances or are unsupported it could require us to revise our promotional claims or take enforcement action against us. If we were subject to such an action by the FDA, our sales could be delayed, our revenue could decline, and our reputation among clinicians could be harmed.


Our business would be harmed if the FDA determines that we have failed to comply with applicable regulations or we do not pass an inspection


We are subject to inspection and market surveillance by the FDA concerning compliance with pertinent regulatory requirements. If the FDA finds that we have failed to comply with these requirements, the Agency can institute a wide variety of enforcement actions, ranging from a public warning letter to more severe sanctions such as:


    Fines, injunctions and civil penalties;


    Recall or seizure of our products;


    Issuance of public notices or warnings;


    Imposition of operating restrictions, partial suspension, or total shutdown of production;


    Refusal of our requests for 510(k) clearance or premarket approval of new products;


    Withdrawal of 510(k) clearance or premarket approvals already granted; or


    Criminal prosecution.


If we fail to obtain and maintain necessary foreign regulatory approvals in order to market and sell our products outside of the U.S., we may not be able to sell our products in other countries


Our products that are regulated domestically by the FDA are also regulated outside the U.S. by foreign governmental agencies similar to the FDA and are subject to regulatory requirements similar to those of the FDA. The time and cost required to obtain market authorization from other countries and the requirements for licensing a product in another country may differ significantly from FDA requirements. We may not be able to obtain these approvals without incurring significant expenses or at all, and we may not be able to maintain these approvals once they have been obtained.



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If we, or our suppliers, fail to comply with applicable regulations, sales of our products could be delayed and our revenue could be harmed


Every manufacturer of a finished medical device, including Natus and some of our contract manufacturers and suppliers, is required to demonstrate and maintain compliance with the FDA’s quality system regulation and comparable regulations of states and other countries. The FDA enforces the quality system regulation through periodic inspections. We or our contract manufacturers, may fail to pass future quality system regulation inspections. If we, or our contract manufacturers, fail one of these inspections in the future, our operations could be disrupted and our manufacturing and sales delayed significantly until we can demonstrate adequate compliance. If we or our contract manufacturers fail to take adequate corrective action in a timely fashion in response to a quality system regulation inspection, the FDA could shut down our or our contract manufacturers’ manufacturing operations or require us, among other things, to recall our products, either of which would harm our business.


Governmental, environmental, health and safety regulations could adversely affect our operations.


Our operations are subject to complex and stringent environmental, health, safety and other governmental laws and regulations. We are subject to a varied and complex body of laws and regulations. Existing laws and regulations may be revised or reinterpreted, or new laws and regulations may become applicable to us, that may have a negative effect on our business and results of operations.


We may not be successful in integrating the businesses that we acquire, or such businesses may not be accretive to earnings or perform as projected


We acquired intellectual property assets and technology patents from Pemstar Pacific Consultants during 2002, and we acquired the assets of Neometrics Inc. and affiliated entities during 2003, we acquired Fischer-Zoth in 2004 and we acquired Bio-logic Systems Corp. in early 2006. We expect to make additional acquisitions of products, technology assets or businesses in the future as part of our efforts to increase revenue and expand our product offerings. In addition to direct costs, acquisitions pose a number of risks, including:


    Inability to effectively integrate acquired products into our business;


    Loss of key personnel of the acquired company;


    Failure to realize expected synergies;


    Failure of acquired products to achieve projected sales;


    Failure to maintain customers of, or other relationships existing with respect to, the acquired business;


    Failure to successfully develop the acquired technology into the desired products or enhancements;


    Assumption of unknown liabilities;


    Failure to understand and compete effectively in markets and with products or technologies with which we have limited previous experience; and


    Write-off of goodwill and intangible assets related to such acquisitions.


Our acquisitions of products, technology assets, or businesses may have a negative impact on our business if we fail to achieve the anticipated financial, strategic, and other benefits of acquisitions or investments, and our operating results may suffer because of this.


Future changes in technology or market conditions result in adjustments to our recorded asset balance for intangible assets, resulting in additional charges that could significantly impact our operating results


At December 31, 2005, we had significant intangible assets, including goodwill and other acquired intangibles. As a result of our acquisition of Bio-logic, these assets will increase significantly. The determination of related estimated useful lives and whether these assets are impaired involves significant judgments. Our ability



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to accurately predict future cash flows related to these intangible assets might be hindered by events over which we have no control. Due to the highly competitive nature of the medical device industry, new technologies could impair the value of our intangible assets if they create market conditions where our products are no longer competitive. Any future determination that these assets are carried at greater than their fair value could result in additional charges, which could significantly impact our operating results.


We may not be able to preserve the value of our intellectual property because we may not be able to protect access to our intellectual property or we may lose our intellectual property rights due to expiration of our licenses or patents


If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights or if our intellectual property rights do not adequately cover the technology we employ, other medical device companies could sell products with features similar to ours, and this could reduce demand for our products. We protect our intellectual property through a combination of patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark laws. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, others may attempt to copy or otherwise improperly obtain and use our products or technology. Policing unauthorized use of our technology is difficult and expensive, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent misappropriation. Our means of protecting our proprietary rights may be inadequate. Enforcing our intellectual property rights could be costly and time consuming and may divert our management’s attention and resources. Failing to enforce our intellectual property rights could also result in the loss of those rights.


Our operating results would suffer if we were subject to a protracted infringement claim or a significant damage award


The medical technology industry has, in the past, been characterized by a substantial amount of litigation and related administrative proceedings regarding patents and intellectual property rights. We expect that medical screening products may become increasingly subject to third-party infringement claims as the number of competitors in our industry segment grows and the functionality of products in different industry segments overlaps. Third parties such as individuals, educational institutions or other medical device companies may claim that we infringe their intellectual property rights. Any claims, with or without merit, could have any of the following negative consequences:


    Result in costly litigation and damage awards;


    Divert our management’s attention and resources;


    Cause product shipment delays or suspensions; or


    Require us to seek to enter into royalty or licensing agreements.


A successful claim of infringement against us could result in a substantial damage award and materially harm our financial condition. Our failure or inability to license the infringed or similar technology, or design and build non-infringing products, could prevent us from selling our products and adversely affect our business and financial results.


Product liability suits against us could result in expensive and time consuming litigation, payment of substantial damages and an increase in our insurance rates


The sale and use of our products could lead to the filing of a product liability claim by someone claiming to have been injured using one of our products or claiming that one of our products failed to perform properly. A product liability claim could result in substantial damages and be costly and time consuming to defend, either of which could materially harm our business or financial condition. Our product liability insurance may not protect our assets from the financial impact of defending a product liability claim. Any product liability claim brought against us, with or without merit, could increase our product liability insurance rates or prevent us from securing any coverage in the future.



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We depend upon key employees in a competitive market for skilled personnel, and, without additional employees, we cannot grow or maintain profitability


Our products and technologies are complex, and we depend substantially on the continued service of our senior management team. The loss of any of our key employees could adversely affect our business and slow our product development process. Our future success also will depend, in part, on the continued service of our key management personnel, software engineers, and other research and development employees and our ability to identify, hire, and retain additional personnel, including customer service, marketing, and sales staff. Hiring research and development, engineering, sales, marketing and customer service personnel in our industry is very competitive due to the limited number of people available with the necessary technical skills and understanding of pediatric audiology, neonatal jaundice management, and neonatal metabolic screening. We may be unable to attract and retain personnel necessary for the development of our business.


We could lose the ability to use net operating loss carryforwards, which may adversely affect our financial results


As of December 31, 2005, we had a total federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $20.4 million and $7.0 million, respectively, available to reduce future taxable income. These net operating loss carryforwards, if not utilized to offset taxable income in future periods, will expire in various amounts beginning in 2008 through 2025 for state and/or federal income tax purposes. If we continue to have net losses, we may not be able to utilize some or all of our net operating loss carryforwards before they expire.


In addition, U.S. income tax law imposes limitations on the ability of corporations to use net operating loss carryforwards if the corporation experiences a more than 50% change in ownership during any three-year period. We may take actions, such as the issuance of additional stock, which would cause an ownership change to occur. Accordingly, we may be limited to the amount we can use in any given year, so even if we have substantial net income, we may not be able to use our net operating loss carryforwards before they expire. In addition, the net operating loss carryforwards are subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), and are thus subject to adjustment or disallowance resulting from any such IRS examination. We have not undertaken a study to determine whether such limitations exist, and if so, the extent of such limitations. However, we believe it is probable that some amount of our net operating losses will be affected.


If we are unable to fully utilize our net operating loss carryforwards, our future tax payments could be higher and our financial results may suffer.


Our stockholder rights plan and anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law may make it more difficult to acquire a large portion of our securities, to initiate a tender offer or a proxy contest, or to acquire us, even though such events may be beneficial to our stockholders


We maintain a stockholder rights plan that is designed to deter unsolicited takeover activity with respect to our Company. In addition, provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may affect the price of our common stock, and could make it more difficult for a third party to remove our management. Further, these provisions may make it more difficult to acquire a large portion of our securities, to initiate a tender offer or a proxy contest or acquire us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders.


ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.


Not applicable.


ITEM 2. Properties


Our corporate headquarters are located in San Carlos, California. The facilities cover approximately 35,000 square feet. It houses substantially all of our employees involved in ALGO hearing screener and neoBLUE device manufacturing, research and development, and related customer support services, as well as all worldwide



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marketing, administration, and finance employees. Leases for these facilities expire during 2010. We rent on a month-to-month basis office and production facilities outside Munich, Germany for research, development, and manufacturing of our Echo-Screen line of products. In addition, we lease small facilities in New York, and London, England under leases that expire between 2005 and 2007. We expect that our current leased facilities will be sufficient for our needs over the next 12 months. Related to our acquisition of Bio-logic, we now also lease facilities in Mundelein, Illinois; Haifa, Israel; Gliwice, Poland; and Krakow, Poland.


ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings


We may from time to time become a party to various legal proceedings or claims that arise in the ordinary course of business. Our management has reviewed these matters and believes that the resolution of them will not have a significant adverse effect on our financial condition.


ITEM 4. Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders


No stockholder votes took place during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2005.



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