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The following is an excerpt from a S-1 SEC Filing, filed by HEMISPHERX BIOPHARMA INC on 3/22/2004.
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HEMISPHERX BIOPHARMA INC - S-1 - 20040322 - FORWARD_LOOK

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

Certain statements in this prospectus constitute "forwarding-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1995 (collectively, the "Reform Act"). Certain, but not necessarily all, of such forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as "believes," "expects," "may," "will," "should," or "anticipates" or the negative thereof or other variations thereon or comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical fact, included in this prospectus regarding our financial position, business strategy and plans or objectives for future operations are forward-looking statements. Without limiting the broader description of forward-looking statements above, we specifically note that statements regarding potential drugs, their potential therapeutic effect, the possibility of obtaining regulatory approval, our ability to manufacture and sell any products, market acceptance or our ability to earn a profit from sales or licenses of any drugs or our ability to discover new drugs in the future are all forward-looking in nature.

Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, including but not limited to, the risk factors discussed below, which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Hemispherx and its subsidiaries to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements and other factors referenced in this prospectus. We do not undertake and specifically decline any obligation to publicly release the results of any revisions which may be made to any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events.

The following cautionary statements identify important factors that could cause our actual result to differ materially form those projected in the forward-looking statements made in this prospectus. Among the key factors that have a direct bearing on our results of operations are:

No assurance of successful product development

Ampligen(R) and related products. The development of Ampligen(R) and our other related products is subject to a number of significant risks. Ampligen(R) may be found to be ineffective or to have adverse side effects, fail to receive necessary regulatory clearances, be difficult to manufacture on a commercial scale, be uneconomical to market or be precluded from commercialization by proprietary right of third parties. Our products are in various stages of clinical and pre-clinical development and, require further clinical studies and appropriate regulatory approval processes before any such products can be marketed. We do not know when, if ever, Ampligen(R) or our other products will be generally available for commercial sale for any indication. Generally, only a small percentage of potential therapeutic products are eventually approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") for commercial sale.

ALFERON N Injection(R). Although ALFERON N Injection(R) is approved for marketing in the United States for the intralesional treatment of refractory or recurring external genital warts in patients 18 years of age or older, to date it has not been approved for other indications. We face many of the risks discussed above, with regard to developing this product for use to treat other ailments such as multiple sclerosis and cancer.

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Our drug and related technologies are investigational and subject to regulatory approval. If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval, our operations will be significantly affected.

All of our drugs and associated technologies other than ALFERON N Injection(R) are investigational and must receive prior regulatory approval by appropriate regulatory authorities for general use and are currently legally available only through clinical trials with specified disorders. At present, ALFERON N Injection(R) is only approved for the intralesional treatment of refractory or recurring external genital warts in patients 18 years of age or older. Use of ALFERON N Injection(R) for other indications will require regulatory approval. In this regard, Interferon Sciences, Inc. ("ISI"), the company from which we obtained our rights to ALFERON N Injection(R), conducted clinical trials related to use of ALFERON N Injection(R) for treatment of HIV and Hepatitis C. In both instances, the FDA determined that additional studies were necessary in order to fully evaluate the efficacy of ALFERON N Injection(R) in the treatment of HIV and Hepatitis C diseases. We have no obligation or immediate plans to conduct these additional studies at this time.

Our products, including Ampligen(R), are subject to extensive regulation by numerous governmental authorities in the U.S. and other countries, including, but not limited to, the FDA in the U.S., the Health Protection Branch ("HPB") of Canada, and the European Medical Evaluation Agency ("EMEA") in Europe. Obtaining regulatory approvals is a rigorous and lengthy process and requires the expenditure of substantial resources. In order to obtain final regulatory approval of a new drug, we must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the regulatory agency that the product is safe and effective for its intended uses and that we are capable of manufacturing the product to the applicable regulatory standards. We require regulatory approval in order to market Ampligen(R) or any other proposed product and receive product revenues or royalties. We cannot assure you that Ampligen(R) will ultimately be demonstrated to be safe or efficacious. In addition, while Ampligen(R) is authorized for use in clinical trials in the United States and other countries, we cannot assure you that additional clinical trial approvals will be authorized in the United States or in other countries, in a timely fashion or at all, or that we will complete these clinical trials. If Ampligen(R) or one of our other products does not receive regulatory approval in the U.S. or elsewhere, our operations most likely will be materially adversely affected.

We may continue to incur substantial losses and our future profitability is uncertain.

We began operations in 1966 and last reported net profit from 1985 through 1987. Since 1987, we have incurred substantial operating losses, as we pursued our clinical trial effort and expanded our efforts in Europe. As of December 31, 2003 our accumulated deficit was approximately $113,843,000. We have not yet generated significant revenues from our products and may incur substantial and increased losses in the future. We cannot assure that we will ever achieve significant revenues from product sales or become profitable. We require, and will continue to require, the commitment of substantial resources to develop our products. We cannot assure that our product development efforts will be successfully completed or that required regulatory approvals will be obtained or that any products will be manufactured and marketed successfully, or be profitable.

We may require additional financing which may not be available.

The development of our products will require the commitment of substantial resources to conduct the time-consuming research, preclinical development, and clinical trials that are necessary to bring pharmaceutical products to market. As of December 31, 2003, we had approximately $5.3 million in cash and short term investments. We believe that these funds plus 1) the $3,695,000 in net proceeds from the January Debenture placement, 2) the anticipated infusion of approximately $1.55 million in remaining net proceeds from the October Debentures, 3) the projected net cash flow from the sale of ALFERON N Injection(R), 4) the proceeds from licensing agreements and/or the expected infusion of $2,000,000 in

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proceeds from our investors exercising their additional investment rights should be sufficient to meet our operating cash requirements including debt service during the 2004 fiscal year. We may need to raise additional funds through additional equity or debt financing or from other sources in order to complete the necessary clinical trials and the regulatory approval processes and begin commercializing Ampligen(R) products. There can be no assurances that we will raise adequate funds from these or other sources, which may have a material adverse effect on our ability to develop our products.

We have guaranteed the value of a number of shares issued as a result of our acquisition of assets from Interferon Sciences. If our share price is not above $1.59 per share 12 or 24 months after the dates of issuance of the guaranteed shares, our financial condition could be adversely affected.

In March 2004, when we consummated the second ISI asset acquisition, we issued 487,028 shares to ISI. In May 2003 we issued an aggregate of 581,761 shares to two of ISIs' creditors. We have guaranteed the value of all but 62,500 of these shares to be $1.59 per share on the relevant termination dates. As of March 18, 2004, 738,993 of the guaranteed shares have not been sold. The termination dates are 24 months after the dates of issuance and delivery of the guaranteed shares to ISI and 12 months after the date of issuance of the guaranteed shares to the American National Red Cross. The guarantee relates only to those shares still held by ISI and the American National Red Cross on the applicable termination date. If, within 30 days after the relevant termination date, holders of the guaranteed shares request that we honor the guarantees, we will reacquire the holders' remaining guaranteed shares and pay the holders $1.59 per share. By way of example, assuming that all remaining 738,993 shares are still held on the relevant termination dates, we would be obligated to pay to ISI $675,000 and the American National Red Cross $500,000. The reported last sale price for our common stock on the American Stock Exchange on March 15, 2004 was $3.20 per share. If, during the 31 days commencing on the relevant termination dates, the market price of our stock is not above $1.59 per share, we most likely would be requested and obligated to pay the guaranteed amount on the guaranteed shares outstanding on the relevant termination dates. We believe that the number of guaranteed shares still outstanding on the relevant termination dates will be a factor of the market price and sales volume of our common stock during the 24 and 12 month periods prior to the relevant termination date.

If the holders of the guaranteed shares do not sell a significant amount of their guaranteed shares prior to the relevant termination dates and the price of our common stock during the 31 day period commencing on the relevant termination dates is not above $1.59 per share, we most likely will be required to repurchase a significant number of guaranteed shares and our financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

We may not be profitable unless we can protect our patents and/or receive approval for additional pending patents.

We need to preserve and acquire enforceable patents covering the use of Ampligen(R) for a particular disease in order to obtain exclusive rights for the commercial sale of Ampligen(R) for such disease. If and when we obtain all rights to ALFERON N Injection(R), we will need to preserve and acquire enforceable patents covering its use for a particular disease too. Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to preserve and obtain patent protection for our products and to obtain and preserve our trade secrets and expertise. Certain of our know-how and technology is not patentable, particularly the procedures for the manufacture of our drug product which are carried out according to standard operating procedure manuals. We have been issued certain patents including those on the use of Ampligen(R) and Ampligen(R) in combination with certain other drugs for the treatment of HIV. We also have been issued patents on the use of Ampligen(R) in combination with certain other drugs for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B virus, chronic Hepatitis C virus, and a patent which affords protection on the use of Ampligen(R) in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. We have not yet been issued any

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patents in the United States for the use of Ampligen(R) as a sole treatment for any of the cancers, which we have sought to target. With regard to ALFERON N Injection(R), we have acquired from ISI its patents for natural alpha interferon produced from human peripheral blood leukocytes and its production process. We cannot assure that our competitors will not seek and obtain patents regarding the use of similar products in combination with various other agents, for a particular target indication prior to our doing such. If we cannot protect our patents covering the use of our products for a particular disease, or obtain additional patents, we may not be able to successfully market our products.

The patent position of biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms is highly uncertain and involves complex legal and factual questions.

To date, no consistent policy has emerged regarding the breadth of protection afforded by pharmaceutical and biotechnology patents. There can be no assurance that new patent applications relating to our products or technology will result in patents being issued or that, if issued, such patents will afford meaningful protection against competitors with similar technology. It is generally anticipated that there may be significant litigation in the industry regarding patent and intellectual property rights. Such litigation could require substantial resources from us and we may not have the financial resources necessary to enforce the patent rights that we hold. No assurance can be made that our patents will provide competitive advantages for our products or will not be successfully challenged by competitors. No assurance can be given that patents do not exist or could not be filed which would have a materially adverse effect on our ability to develop or market our products or to obtain or maintain any competitive position that we may achieve with respect to our products. Our patents also may not prevent others from developing competitive products using related technology.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain necessary licenses if we cannot enforce patent rights we may hold. In addition, the failure of third parties from whom we currently license certain proprietary information or from whom we may be required to obtain such licenses in the future, to adequately enforce their rights to such proprietary information, could adversely affect the value of such licenses to us.

If we cannot enforce the patent rights we currently hold we may be required to obtain licenses from others to develop, manufacture or market our products. There can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain any such licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. We currently license certain proprietary information from third parties, some of which may have been developed with government grants under circumstances where the government maintained certain rights with respect to the proprietary information developed. No assurances can be given that such third parties will adequately enforce any rights they may have or that the rights, if any, retained by the government will not adversely affect the value of our license.

There is no guarantee that our trade secrets will not be disclosed or known by our competitors.

To protect our rights, we require certain employees and consultants to enter into confidentiality agreements with us. There can be no assurance that these agreements will not be breached, that we would have adequate and enforceable remedies for any breach, or that any trade secrets of ours will not otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors.

If our distributors do not market our products successfully, we may not generate significant revenues or become profitable.

We have limited marketing and sales capability. We are dependent upon existing and, possibly future, marketing agreements and third party distribution agreements for our products in order to generate

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significant revenues and become profitable. As a result, any revenues received by us will be dependent on the efforts of third parties, and there is no assurance that these efforts will be successful. Our agreement with Accredo offers the potential to provide some marketing and distribution capacity in the United States while agreements with Bioclones (Proprietary), Ltd , Biovail Corporation and Laboratorios Del Dr. Esteve S.A. should provide a sales force in South America, Africa, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Spain and Portugal.

We cannot assure that our domestic or foreign marketing partners will be able to successfully distribute our products, or that we will be able to establish future marketing or third party distribution agreements on terms acceptable to us, or that the cost of establishing these arrangements will not exceed any product revenues. The failure to continue these arrangements or to achieve other such arrangements on satisfactory terms could have a materially adverse effect on us.

There are no long-term agreements with suppliers of required materials. If we are unable to obtain the required raw materials, we may be required to scale back our operations or stop manufacturing ALFERON N Injection.

A number of essential materials are used in the production of ALFERON N Injection(R), including human white blood cells. We do not have long-term agreements for the supply of any of such materials. There can be no assurance we can enter into long-term supply agreements covering essential materials on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If we are unable to obtain the required raw materials, we may be required to scale back our operations or stop manufacturing ALFERON N Injection(R). The costs and availability of products and materials we need for the commercial production of ALFERON N Injection(R) and other products which we may commercially produce are subject to fluctuation depending on a variety of factors beyond our control, including competitive factors, changes in technology, and FDA and other governmental regulations and there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such products and materials on terms acceptable to us or at all.

There is no assurance that successful manufacture of a drug on a limited scale basis for investigational use will lead to a successful transition to commercial, large-scale production.

Small changes in methods of manufacturing may affect the chemical structure of Ampligen(R) and other RNA drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy. Changes in methods of manufacture, including commercial scale-up may affect the chemical structure of Ampligen(R) and can, among other things, require new clinical studies and affect orphan drug status, particularly, market exclusivity rights, if any, under the Orphan Drug Act. The transition from limited production of pre-clinical and clinical research quantities to production of commercial quantities of our products will involve distinct management and technical challenges and will require additional management and technical personnel and capital to the extent such manufacturing is not handled by third parties. There can be no assurance that our manufacturing will be successful or that any given product will be determined to be safe and effective, capable of being manufactured economically in commercial quantities or successfully marketed.

We have limited manufacturing experience and capacity.

Ampligen(R) is currently produced only in limited quantities for use in our clinical trials and we are dependent upon certain third party suppliers for key components of our products and for substantially all of the production process. The failure to continue these arrangements or to achieve other such arrangements on satisfactory terms could have a material adverse affect on us. Also, to be successful, our products must be manufactured in commercial quantities in compliance with regulatory requirements and at acceptable costs. To the extent we are involved in the production process, our current facilities are not adequate for the production of our proposed products for large-scale commercialization, and we currently

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do not have adequate personnel to conduct commercial-scale manufacturing. We intend to utilize third-party facilities if and when the need arises or, if we are unable to do so, to build or acquire commercial-scale manufacturing facilities. We will need to comply with regulatory requirements for such facilities, including those of the FDA and HPB pertaining to current Good Manufacturing Practices ("cGMP") regulations. There can be no assurance that such facilities can be used, built, or acquired on commercially acceptable terms, or that such facilities, if used, built, or acquired, will be adequate for our long-term needs.

The purified drug concentrate utilized in the formulation of ALFERON N Injection(R) is manufactured in ISI's facility and ALFERON N Injection(R) is formulated and packaged at a production facility operated by Abbott Laboratories located in Kansas. In March 2004 we acquired ISI's New Brunswick, NJ facility. We still will be dependent upon Abbott Laboratories and/or another third party for product formulation and packaging.

We may not be profitable unless we can produce Ampligen(R) or other products in commercial quantities at costs acceptable to us.

We have never produced Ampligen(R) or any other products in large commercial quantities. Ampligen(R) is currently produced for use in clinical trials. We must manufacture our products in compliance with regulatory requirements in large commercial quantities and at acceptable costs in order for us to be profitable. We intend to utilize third-party manufacturers and/or facilities if and when the need arises or, if we are unable to do so, to build or acquire commercial-scale manufacturing facilities. If we cannot manufacture commercial quantities of Ampligen(R) or enter into third party agreements for its manufacture at costs acceptable to us, our operations will be significantly affected. Also, each production lots of Alferon N Injection(R) is subject to FDA review and approval prior to releasing the lots to be sold. This review and approval process could take considerable time, which would delay our having product in inventory to sell. Alferon N Injection(R) has a shelf life of 18 months after having been bottled.

Rapid technological change may render our products obsolete or non-competitive.

The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are subject to rapid and substantial technological change. Technological competition from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, universities, governmental entities and others diversifying into the field is intense and is expected to increase. Most of these entities have significantly greater research and development capabilities than us, as well as substantial marketing, financial and managerial resources, and represent significant competition for us. There can be no assurance that developments by others will not render our products or technologies obsolete or noncompetitive or that we will be able to keep pace with technological developments.

Our products may be subject to substantial competition.

Ampligen(R). Competitors may be developing technologies that are, or in the future may be, the basis for competitive products. Some of these potential products may have an entirely different approach or means of accomplishing similar therapeutic effects to products being developed by us. These competing products may be more effective and less costly than our products. In addition, conventional drug therapy, surgery and other more familiar treatments may offer competition to our products. Furthermore, many of our competitors have significantly greater experience than us in pre-clinical testing and human clinical trials of pharmaceutical products and in obtaining FDA, HPB and other regulatory approvals of products. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining FDA, HPB or other regulatory product approvals more rapidly than us. There are no drugs approved for commercial sale with respect to treating ME/CFS in the United States. The dominant competitors with drugs to treat HIV diseases include Gilead Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers, Abbott Labs, Glaxo Smithkline, Merck and Schering-Plough Corp. These potential competitors are among the largest pharmaceutical companies

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in the world, are well known to the public and the medical community, and have substantially greater financial resources, product development, and manufacturing and marketing capabilities than we have. Although we believe our principal advantage is the unique mechanism of action of Ampligen(R) on the immune system, we cannot assure that we will be able to compete.

ALFERON N Injection(R). Many potential competitors are among the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, are well known to the public and the medical community, and have substantially greater financial resources, product development, and manufacturing and marketing capabilities than we have. ALFERON N Injection(R) currently competes with Schering's injectable recombinant alpha interferon product (INTRON(R) A) for the treatment of genital warts. 3M Pharmaceuticals also received FDA approval for its immune-response modifier, Aldara(R), a self-administered topical cream, for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. ALFERON N Injection(R) also competes with surgical, chemical, and other methods of treating genital warts. We cannot assess the impact products developed by our competitors, or advances in other methods of the treatment of genital warts, will have on the commercial viability of ALFERON N Injection(R). If and when we obtain additional approvals of uses of this product, we expect to compete primarily on the basis of product performance. Our potential competitors have developed or may develop products (containing either alpha or beta interferon or other therapeutic compounds) or other treatment modalities for those uses. In the United States, three recombinant forms of beta interferon have been approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. There can be no assurance that, if we are able to obtain regulatory approval of ALFERON N Injection(R) for the treatment of new indications, we will be able to achieve any significant penetration into those markets. In addition, because certain competitive products are not dependent on a source of human blood cells, such products may be able to be produced in greater volume and at a lower cost than ALFERON N Injection(R). Currently, our wholesale price on a per unit basis of ALFERON N Injection(R) is higher than that of the competitive recombinant alpha and beta interferon products.

General. Other companies may succeed in developing products earlier than we do, obtaining approvals for such products from the FDA more rapidly than we do, or developing products that are more effective than those we may develop. While we will attempt to expand our technological capabilities in order to remain competitive, there can be no assurance that research and development by others or other medical advances will not render our technology or products obsolete or non-competitive or result in treatments or cures superior to any therapy we develop.

Possible side effects from the use of Ampligen(R) or ALFERON N Injection(R) could adversely affect potential revenues and physician/patient acceptability of our product.

Ampligen(R). We believe that Ampligen(R) has been generally well tolerated with a low incidence of clinical toxicity, particularly given the severely debilitating or life threatening diseases that have been treated. A mild flushing reaction has been observed in approximately 15% of patients treated in our various studies. This reaction is occasionally accompanied by a rapid heart beat, a tightness of the chest, urticaria (swelling of the skin), anxiety, shortness of breath, subjective reports of "feeling hot," sweating and nausea. The reaction is usually infusion-rate related and can generally be controlled by slowing the infusion rate. Other adverse side effects include liver enzyme level elevations, diarrhea, itching, asthma, low blood pressure, photophobia, rash, transient visual disturbances, slow or irregular heart rate, decreases in platelets and white blood cell counts, anemia, dizziness, confusion, elevation of kidney function tests, occasional temporary hair loss and various flu-like symptoms, including fever, chills, fatigue, muscular aches, joint pains, headaches, nausea and vomiting. These flu-like side effects typically subside within several months. One or more of the potential side effects might deter usage of Ampligen(R) in certain clinical situations and therefore, could adversely affect potential revenues and physician/patient acceptability of our product.

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ALFERON N Injection(R). At present, ALFERON N Injection(R) is only approved for the intralesional (within the lesion) treatment of refractory or recurring external genital warts in adults. In clinical trials conducted for the treatment of genital warts with ALFERON N Injection(R), patients did not experience serious side effects; however, there can be no assurance that unexpected or unacceptable side effects will not be found in the future for this use or other potential uses of ALFERON N Injection(R) which could threaten or limit such product's usefulness.

We may be subject to product liability claims from the use of Ampligen(R) or other of our products which could negatively affect our future operations.

We face an inherent business risk of exposure to product liability claims in the event that the use of Ampligen(R) or other of our products results in adverse effects. This liability might result from claims made directly by patients, hospitals, clinics or other consumers, or by pharmaceutical companies or others manufacturing these products on our behalf. Our future operations may be negatively affected from the litigation costs, settlement expenses and lost product sales inherent to these claims. While we will continue to attempt to take appropriate precautions, we cannot assure that we will avoid significant product liability exposure. Although we currently maintain product liability insurance coverage, there can be no assurance that this insurance will provide adequate coverage against product liability claims. A successful product liability claim against us in excess of our $1,000,000 in insurance coverage or for which coverage is not provided could have a negative effect on our business and financial condition.

The loss of Dr. William A. Carter's services could hurt our chances for success.

Our success is dependent on the continued efforts of Dr. William A. Carter because of his position as a pioneer in the field of nucleic acid drugs, his being the co-inventor of Ampligen(R), and his knowledge of our overall activities, including patents and clinical trials. The loss of Dr. Carter's services could have a material adverse effect on our operations and chances for success. We have secured key man life insurance in the amount of $2 million on the life of Dr. Carter and we have an employment agreement with Dr. Carter that, as amended, runs until May 8, 2008. However, Dr. Carter has the right to terminate his employment upon not less than 30 days prior written notice. The loss of Dr. Carter or other personnel, or the failure to recruit additional personnel as needed could have a materially adverse effect on our ability to achieve our objectives.

Uncertainty of health care reimbursement for our products.

Our ability to successfully commercialize our products will depend, in part, on the extent to which reimbursement for the cost of such products and related treatment will be available from government health administration authorities, private health coverage insurers and other organizations. Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of newly approved health care products, and from time to time legislation is proposed, which, if adopted, could further restrict the prices charged by and/or amounts reimbursable to manufacturers of pharmaceutical products. We cannot predict what, if any, legislation will ultimately be adopted or the impact of such legislation on us. There can be no assurance that third party insurance companies will allow us to charge and receive payments for products sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in product development.

There are risks of liabilities associated with handling and disposing of hazardous materials.

Our business involves the controlled use of hazardous materials, carcinogenic chemicals and various radioactive compounds. Although we believe that our safety procedures for handling and disposing of such materials comply in all material respects with the standards prescribed by applicable regulations, the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials cannot be completely eliminated. In the event

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of such an accident or the failure to comply with applicable regulations, we could be held liable for any damages that result, and any such liability could be significant. We do not maintain insurance coverage against such liabilities.

The market price of our stock may be adversely affected by market volatility.

The market price of our common stock has been and is likely to be volatile. In addition to general economic, political and market conditions, the price and trading volume of our stock could fluctuate widely in response to many factors, including:

o announcements of the results of clinical trials by us or our competitors;

o adverse reactions to products;

o governmental approvals, delays in expected governmental approvals or withdrawals of any prior governmental approvals or public or regulatory agency concerns regarding the safety or effectiveness of our products;

o changes in U.S. or foreign regulatory policy during the period of product development;

o developments in patent or other proprietary rights, including any third party challenges of our intellectual property rights;

o announcements of technological innovations by us or our competitors;

o announcements of new products or new contracts by us or our competitors;

o actual or anticipated variations in our operating results due to the level of development expenses and other factors;

o changes in financial estimates by securities analysts and whether our earnings meet or exceed the estimates;

o conditions and trends in the pharmaceutical and other industries;

o new accounting standards; and

o the occurrence of any of the risks described in these "Risk Factors."

Our common stock is listed for quotation on the American Stock Exchange. For the 12-month period ended December 31, 2003, the price of our common stock has ranged from $1.33 to $2.96. We expect the price of our common stock to remain volatile. The average daily trading volume of our common stock varies significantly. Our relatively low average volume and low average number of transactions per day may affect the ability of our stockholders to sell their shares in the public market at prevailing prices and a more active market may never develop.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of the securities of companies in our industry, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies in our industry. If we face securities litigation in the future, even if without merit or unsuccessful, it would result in substantial costs and a diversion of management attention and resources, which would negatively impact our business.

Our stock price may be adversely affected if a significant amount of shares, primarily those registered herein and in a prior registration statement, are sold in the public market.

As of March 18, 2004, approximately 745,519 shares of our common stock, constituted "restricted securities" as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933. Substantially all of these shares are registered herein or in a prior registration statement pursuant to agreements between us and the holders of these shares. In addition, we have registered 9,506,572 shares issuable (i) upon conversion of approximately 135% of the Debentures issued in January 2004 (the "January 2004 Debentures"), the October Debentures, the July Debentures and the January 2004 Debentures issuable upon exercise of Additional Investment Rights (issued in conjunction with the January 2004 Debentures); (ii) as payment

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of 135% of the interest on all of the Debentures; (iii) upon exercise of 135% of the 2009 Warrants issued in conjunction with the January 2004 Debentures, the October 2008 Warrants, the July 2008 Warrants and the June 2008 Warrants; (iv) upon exercise of certain other warrants and stock options and (v) shares issued to certain suppliers and service providers. Registration of the shares permits the sale of the shares in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions without compliance with the requirements of Rule 144. To the extent the exercise price of the warrants is less than the market price of the common stock, the holders of the warrants are likely to exercise them and sell the underlying shares of common stock and to the extent that the conversion price and exercise price of these securities are adjusted pursuant to anti-dilution protection, the securities could be exercisable or convertible for even more shares of common stock. We also may issue shares to be used to meet our capital requirements or use shares to compensate employees, consultants and/or directors. We are unable to estimate the amount, timing or nature of future sales of outstanding common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market could cause the market price for our common stock to decrease. Furthermore, a decline in the price of our common stock would likely impede our ability to raise capital through the issuance of additional shares of common stock or other equity securities.

Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Delaware law could defer a change of our management which could discourage or delay offers to acquire us.

Provisions of our Certificate of Incorporation and Delaware law may make it more difficult for someone to acquire control of us or for our stockholders to remove existing management, and might discourage a third party from offering to acquire us, even if a change in control or in management would be beneficial to our stockholders. For example, our Certificate of Incorporation allows us to issue shares of preferred stock without any vote or further action by our stockholders. Our Board of Directors has the authority to fix and determine the relative rights and preferences of preferred stock. Our Board of Directors also has the authority to issue preferred stock without further stockholder approval. As a result, our Board of Directors could authorize the issuance of a series of preferred stock that would grant to holders the preferred right to our assets upon liquidation, the right to receive dividend payments before dividends are distributed to the holders of common stock and the right to the redemption of the shares, together with a premium, prior to the redemption of our common stock. In this regard, in November, 2002 we adopted a shareholder rights plan and, under the Plan, our Board of Directors declared a dividend distribution of one Right for each outstanding share of Common Stock to stockholders of record at the close of business on November 29, 2002. Each Right initially entitles holders to buy one unit of preferred stock for $30.00. The Rights generally are not transferable apart from the common stock and will not be exercisable unless and until a person or group acquires or commences a tender or exchange offer to acquire, beneficial ownership of 15% or more of our common stock. However, for Dr. Carter, our chief executive officer, who already beneficially owns 12.3% of our common stock, the Plan's threshold will be 20%, instead of 15%. The Rights will expire on November 19, 2012, and may be redeemed prior thereto at $.01 per Right under certain circumstances.

Because the risk factors referred to above could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Our research in clinical efforts may continue for the next several years and we may continue to incur losses due to clinical costs incurred in the development of Ampligen(R) for commercial application. Possible losses may fluctuate from quarter to quarter as a result of differences in the timing of significant expenses incurred and receipt of licensing fees and/or cost recovery treatment revenues in Europe, Canada and in the United States.

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